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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 

ICC IWUIC (2012), the International Wildland-Urban 
Interface Code, as mandated by and incorporated by 
the States and Municipalities, including the 
Village of Gurnee (Illinois) in an Ordinance 
Adopted by the President and Board of Trustees 
on April 16, 2012 and the City of Orange Beach 
(Alabama) in Ordinance 2012-1145 as posted and 
adopted on May 7, 2012. 






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INTERNATIONAL 

WILDLAND-URBAN 
INTERFACE 

CODE* 

A Member of the International Code Family 







INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL 



INTERNATIONAL 

WILDLAND-URBAN 

INTERFACE 

CODE* 

A Member of the International Code Family® 



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2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code® 



First Printing: April 2011 



ISBN: 978-1-60983-057-1 (soft-cover edition) 

COPYRIGHT© 2011 

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INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL INC 



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[ntroduction 



Development 



Adoption 



Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date code addressing the mit- 
igation of fire in the wildland-urban interface. The International Wildland-Urban Interface Code'", in 
this 2012 edition, is designed to bridge the gap between enforcement of the International Building 
Code® and International Fire Code® by mitigating the hazard of wildfires through model code regula- 
tions, which safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive wildland-urban interface code establishes minimum regulations for land use 
and the built environment in designated wildland-urban interface areas using prescriptive and per- 
formance-related provisions. It is founded on data collected from tests and fire incidents, technical 
reports and mitigation strategies from around the world. This 2012 edition is fully compatible with 
all of the International Codes (l-Codes®) published by the International Code Council (ICC)®, includ- 
ing the International Building Code®, International Energy Conservation Code®, International Exist- 
ing Building Code 9 , International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Green 
Construction Code™ (to be available March 2012), International Mechanical Code®, ICC Perfor- 
mance Code®, International Plumbing Code 9 , International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, Interna- 
tional Property Maintenance Code®, International Residential Code®, International Swimming Pool 
and Spa Code™ (to be available March 2012), and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Wildland-Urban Interface Code provisions provide many benefits, including the 
model code development process, which offers an international forum for fire safety professionals 
to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena 
to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the 
application of provisions. 



The first edition of the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (2003) was the culmination of 
an effort initiated in 2001 by the ICC and the three statutory members of the International Code 
Council: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Confer- 
ence of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The 
intent was to draft a comprehensive set of regulations for mitigating the hazard to life and property 
from the intrusion of fire from wildland exposures and fire from adjacent structures, and preventing 
structure fires from spreading to wildland fuels. Technical content of the 2000 Urban-Wildland 
Interface Code, published by the International Fire Code Institute, was utilized as the basis for the 
development, followed by the publication of the 2001 Final Draft. This 2012 edition presents the 
code as originally issued, with changes approved through the ICC Code Development Process 
through 2010. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to mitigate the hazard from fires through the devel- 
opment of provisions that adequately protect public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do 
not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materi- 
als, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to 
particular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 



The International Wildland-Urban Interface Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions 
internationally. Its use within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through 
adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's laws. At the 
time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring spe- 
cific local information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in 
bracketed words in small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adop- 
tion ordinance on page xi addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including 
the information required for insertion into the code text. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 4 



Ualfitenance 



The International Wildland-Urban Interface Code is kept up-to-date through the review of proposed 
changes submitted by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and 
other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code develop- 
ment process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the code development cycles and 
the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code 
development process, contact the Codes and Standards Development Department of the Interna- 
tional Code Council. 

Although the development procedure of the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code 
assures the highest degree of care, ICC, its members and those participating in the development of 
this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provi- 
sions, because ICC and its founding members do not have the power or authority to police or 
enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the 
code into law has such authority. 



Code Development Committee Responsibilities 

(Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers) 



In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Devel- 
opment Hearing by the International Fire Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes 
a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the proposed change. Proposed 
changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a 
different code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections or defini- 
tions that have [B] in front of them (e.g., Section 202 [B] DWELLING), are considered by the appro- 
priate International Building Code Development Committee (IBC-General) at the Code Development 
Hearing. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation is maintained by another 
code development committee in accordance with the following: 

[A] = Administrative Code Development Committee; 

[B] = International Building Code Development Committee (IBC— Fire Safety, General, Means 

of Egress or Structural); 

[F] = International Fire Code Development Committee; and 
[Z] = International Zoning Code Development Committee. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE' 



Note that, for the development of the 2015 edition of the l-Codes, there will be two groups of 
code development committees and they will meet in separate years. The groupings are as follows: 



Group A Codes 

(Heard in 2012, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2012) 


Group B Codes 

(Heard in 2013, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2013) 


International Building Code 


Administrative Provisions (Chapter 1 all codes except 
IRC and ICC PC, administrative updates to currently ref- 
erenced standards, and designated definitions) 


International Fuel Gas Code 


International Energy Conservation Code 


International Mechanical Code 


International Existing Building Code 


International Plumbing Code 


International Fire Code 


International Private Sewage 
Disposal Code 


International Green Construction Code 




ICC Performance Code 




International Property Maintenance Code 




International Residential Code 




International Swimming Pool and Spa Code 




International Wildland-Urban Interface Code 




International Zoning Code 



Code change proposals submitted for code sections that have a letter designation in front of 
them will be heard by the respective committee responsible for such code sections. Because differ- 
ent committees will meet in different years, it is possible that some proposals for this code will be 
heard by a committee in a different year than the year in which the primary committee for this code 
meets. 

For instance, the definition of Dwelling in Chapter 2 of this code is designated as the responsibil- 
ity of the International Building Code Development Committee. This committee will hold its code 
development hearings in 2012 to consider code change proposals in its purview, which includes any 
proposals to revise this definition. Therefore, any code change proposals to this definition will need 
to be submitted by January 3, 2012, for consideration by the appropriate International Building 
Code Committee (IBC-General). 

Note also that every section of Chapter 1 of this code is designated as the responsibility of the 
Administrative Code Development Committee, and that committee is part of the Group B portion of 
the hearings. This committee will meet in 2013 to consider all code change proposals for Chapter 1 
of this code and proposals for Chapter 1 of all l-Codes except the International Residential Code and 
the ICC Performance Code. Therefore, any proposals received for Chapter 1 of this code will be 
assigned to the Administrative Code Development Committee for consideration in 2013. 

It is very important that anyone submitting code change proposals understand which code devel- 
opment committee is responsible for the section of the code that is the subject of the code change 
proposal. For further information on the code development committee responsibilities, please visit 
the ICC web site at www.iccsafe.org/scoping. 



Marginal Markings 



Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the 
requirements of the 2009 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( is* ) are provided in 
the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a 
list of items or in a table has been deleted. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE- 



Italicized Terms 



Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. 
Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the 
intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should 
read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE" 



EFFECI1WE USE ©F THE INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN 

INTERFACE €ODE 



Population growth and the expanding urban development into traditionally nonurban areas have 
increasingly brought humans into contact with wildfires. Between 1985 and 1994, wildfires 
destroyed more than 9,000 homes in the United States. Generally, these homes were located in 
areas "where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped 
wildland or vegetative fuels," also known as the wildland-urban interface. 

The International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) is a model code that is intended to be 
adopted and used supplemental to the adopted building and fire codes of a jurisdiction. The unre- 
stricted use of property in wildland-urban interface areas is a potential threat to life and property 
from fire and resulting erosion. The IWUIC has as its objective the establishment of minimum spe- 
cial regulations for the safeguarding of life and property from the intrusion of fire from wildland fire 
exposures and fire exposures from adjacent structures and to prevent structure fires from spread- 
ing to wildland fuels, even in the absence of fire department intervention. 

Safeguards to prevent the occurrence of fires and to provide adequate fire protection facilities to 
control the spread of fire in wildland-urban interface areas are provided in a tiered manner com- 
mensurate with the relative level of hazard present. 



Arrangement and Format of the 2012 IWUIC 



Before applying the requirements of the IWUIC it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and 
format. The IWUIC, like other codes published by ICC, is arranged and organized to follow logical 
steps that generally occur during a plan review or inspection. The IWUIC is divided as follows: 



Chapters 



1-2 



3-4 



Appendices A-H 



Subjects 



Administration and Definitions 



Wildland-Urban Interface Area Designation 
and Requirements 



Building Construction Regulations 



Fire Protection Requirements 



Referenced Standards 



Adoptable and Informational Appendices 



The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the Inter- 
national Wildland-Urban Interface Code: 

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, enforce- 
ment and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establishing the 
scope of the code. Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview. 
Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining "due process of law" in enforcing the regulations 
contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administrative provi- 
sions can the code official reasonably expect to demonstrate that "equal protection under the law" 
has been provided. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. 
While a defined term may be used in one chapter or another, the meaning provided in Chapter 2 is 
applicable throughout the code. 

Where understanding of a term's definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of 
a particular code provision, the term is shown in italics wherever it appears in the code. This is true 
only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally 
understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning pre- 
scribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE e 



Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding 
terms not defined in this code are also provided. 

Chapter 3 Wildland-Urban Interface Areas. Chapter 3 provides for the fundamental aspect of 
applying the code— the legal declaration and establishment of wildland-urban interface areas 
within the adopting jurisdiction by the local legislative body. The provisions cover area analysis and 
declaration based on findings of fact (located in Appendix E), mapping of the area, legal recordation 
of the maps with the local keeper of records and the periodic review and reevaluation of the 
declared areas on a regular basis. If needed, revisions can be directed by the legislative body of the 
jurisdiction. 

Chapter 4 Wildland-Urban Interface Area Requirements. The requirements of Chapter 4 apply to 
all occupancies in the wildland-urban interface and pertain to: 

1. Fire service access to the property that is to be protected, including fire apparatus access 
roads and off-road driveways; 

2. Premises identification; 

3. Key boxes to provide ready access to properties secured by gated roadways or other 
impediments to rapid fire service access; 

4. Fire protection water supplies, including adequate water sources, pumper apparatus 
drafting sites, fire hydrant systems and system reliability; 

5. Fire department access to equipment such as fire suppression equipment and fire hydrants; 
and 

6. Fire protection plans. 

Chapter 5 Special Building Construction Regulations. The regulations in Chapter 5 establish mini- 
mum standards for the location, design and construction of buildings and structures based on fire 
hazard severity in the wildland-urban interface. 

The construction provisions of Chapter 5 are intended to supplement the requirements of the 
International Building Code and address mitigation of the unique hazards posed to buildings by 
wildfire and to reduce the hazards of building fires spreading to wildland fuels. This is accomplished 
by requiring ignition-resistant construction materials based on the hazard severity of the building 
site. Construction features regulated include underfloor areas, roof coverings, eaves and soffits, 
gutters and downspouts, exterior walls, doors and windows, ventilation openings and accessory 
structures. 

Chapter 6 Fire Protection Requirements. Chapter 6 establishes minimum fire protection require- 
ments to mitigate the hazards to life and property from fire in the wildland-urban interface. The 
chapter includes both design-oriented and prescriptive mitigation strategies to reduce the hazards 
of fire originating within a structure spreading to the wildland and fire originating in the wildland 
spreading to structures. 

Especially targeted for a systems-approach to fire protection are those new buildings which are 
deemed to be especially hazardous under Chapter 5; these buildings are required to be sprinklered 
Other hazard mitigation strategies include establishing around structures defensible space zones 
wherein combustible vegetation and trees are regulated and kept away from buildings and trees are 
located 10 feet crown-to-crown away from each other. Additional hazards that are dealt with in 
Chapter 6 include spark arresters on chimneys, regulated storage of combustible materials fire- 
wood and LP-gas. 

Chapter 7 Referenced Standards. The code contains several references to standards that are used 
to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 7 contains a comprehensive list of all 
standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part of the code to the extent of the 
reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compliance 
with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation 
requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code 

2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, 
designer and owner. 

Chapter 7 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of 
the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. 
Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the stan- 
dard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard 
referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this 
code that reference the standard. 



Appendix A General Requirements. Appendix A, while not part of the code, can become part of the 
code when specifically included in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xi). Its 
purpose is to provide fire-protection measures supplemental to those found in Chapter 6 to reduce 
the threat of wildfire in a wildland-urban interface area and improve the capability for controlling 
such fires. This appendix includes detailed requirements for vegetation control; the code official's 
authority to close wildland-interface areas in times of high fire danger; control of fires, fireworks 
usage and other sources of ignition; storage of hazardous materials and combustibles; bans the 
dumping of waste materials and ashes and coals in wildland-urban interface areas; protection of 
pumps and water supplies; and limits temporary uses within the wildland-urban interface area. 

Appendix B Vegetation Management Plan. Appendix B, while not part of the code, can become 
part of the code when specifically included in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on 
page xi). Its purpose is to provide criteria for submitting vegetation management plans, specifying 
their content and establishing a criterion for considering vegetation management as being a fuel 
modification. 

Appendix C Fire Hazard Severity Form. Appendix C, while not part of the code, can become part of 
the code (replacing Table 502.1) when specifically included in the adopting ordinance (see sample 
ordinance on page xi). Its purpose is to provide an alternative methodology to using Table 502.1 for 
analyzing the fire hazard severity of building sites using a pre-assigned value/scoring system for 
each feature that impacts the hazard level of a building site. Included in the evaluation are site 
access, types and management of vegetation, percentage of defensible space on the site, site 
topography, class of roofing and other construction materials used on the building existing or to be 
constructed on the site, fire protection water supply, and whether utilities are installed above or 
below ground. 

Appendix D Fire Danger Rating System. Appendix D is an excerpt from the National Fire Danger Rat- 
ing System (NFDRS), 1978, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, General Techni- 
cal Report INT-39, and is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption. The fuel models 
that are included are only general descriptions because they represent all wildfire fuels from Florida 
to Alaska and from the East Coast to California. 

The National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) is a set of computer programs and algorithms 
that allow land management agencies to estimate today's or tomorrow's fire danger for a given rat- 
ing area. NFDRS characterizes fire danger by evaluating the approximate upper limit of fire behavior 
in a fire danger rating area during a 24-hour period based on fuels, topography and weather, or 
what is commonly called the fire triangle. Fire danger ratings are guides for initiating presuppres- 
sion activities and selecting the appropriate level of initial response to a reported wildfire in lieu of 
detailed, site- and time-specific information. 

Predicting the potential behavior and effects of wildland fire are essential tasks in fire manage- 
ment. Surface fire behavior and fire effects models and prediction systems are driven in part by 
fuelbed inputs such as load, bulk density, fuel particle size, heat content, and moisture content. To 
facilitate use in models and systems, fuelbed inputs have been formulated into fuel models. A fuel 
model is a set of fuelbed inputs needed by a particular fire behavior or fire effects model. Different 
kinds of fuel models are used in fire spread models in a variety of fire behavior modeling systems. 
The fuel models in this appendix correlate with the light, medium and heavy fuel definitions found 
in Chapter 2 of the code. 

Appendix E Findings of Fact. Appendix E is an informational appendix that intends to provide a 
methodology for presenting the findings of fact that are required by Chapter 3 of the code when a 
jurisdiction defines and establishes a wildland-urban interface area that will be the subject of regu- 
lation by the IWUIC. The development of written "findings of fact" that justifies designation of wild- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



land-interface areas by local jurisdictions requires that a certain amount of research and analysis be 
conducted to support a written finding that is both credible and professional. In the context of 
adopting a supplemental document such as the wildland-urban interface declaration, the writing of 
these findings is essential in creating the maps and overlap needed to use their specific options. 

The purpose of this appendix is to provide an overview of how local officials could approach this 
process. There are three essential phenomena cited in some adoption statutes that vary from com- 
munity to community: climate, topography and geography. Although it can be agreed that there are 
other findings that could draw distinction in local effects, these three features are also consistent 
with standard code text that offers opportunity to be more restrictive than local codes. The process 
demands a high level of professionalism to protect the jurisdiction's credibility in adopting more 
restrictive requirements. A superficial effort in preparing the findings of fact could jeopardize the 
proposed or adopted code restriction. Jurisdictions should devote a sufficient amount of time to 
draft the findings of fact to ensure that the facts are accurate, comprehensive and verifiable. 

Appendix F Characteristics of Fire-Resistive Vegetation. Appendix F is an informational appendix 
provided for the convenience of the code user. It is simply a compilation of the eight characteristics 
of fire-resistive vegetation that can be used effectively within wildland-urban interface areas to 
reduce the likelihood of fire spread through vegetation. 

Appendix G Self-Defense Mechanism The International Wildland-Urban Interface Code establishes 
a set of minimum standards to reduce the loss of property from wildfire. The purpose of these stan- 
dards is to prevent wildfire spreading from vegetation to a building. Frequently, proposals are made 
by property or landowners of buildings located in the wildland-urban interface to consider other 
options and alternatives instead of meeting these minimum standards. Appendix G is an informa- 
tion appendix that provides discussion of some elements of the proposed self-defense mechanisms 
and their role in enhancing the protection of exposed structures in the wildland-urban interface. To 
accept alternative self-defense mechanisms, the code official must carefully examine whether these 
devices will be in place at the time of an event and whether or not they will assist or actually compli- 
cate the defense of the structure by fire suppression forces if they are available. 

Appendix H International Wildland-Urban Interface Code Flowchart. Appendix H is an information 
appendix that is based on the "Decision Tree" concept and is intended to provide the code official 
with a graphical, flowchart representation of how the IWUIC is to be applied in an orderly manner. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



LEGISLATION 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by legislative action. Jurisdictions wishing to 
adopt the 2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code as an enforceable regulation for the mitigation of fire in the wild- 
land-urban interface should ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting legislation at the time adoption is 
being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The following sample adoption legislation addresses several key ele- 
ments, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE LEGISLATION FOR ADOPTION OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



A[N] [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2012 edition of the International Wildland-Urban 
Interface Code, regulating and governing the mitigation of hazard to life and property from the intrusion of fire from wildland 
exposures, fire from adjacent structures and prevention of structure fires from spreading to wildland fuels in the [JURISDICTION]; 

providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. 

of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER 
OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code, 
2012 edition, including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED], as published by the Interna- 
tional Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Wildland-Urban Interface Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of 
[STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the mitigation of hazard to life and property from the intrusion of fire from wildland 
exposures, fire from adjacent structures and prevention of structure fires from spreading to wildland fuels as herein provided; 
providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, 
conditions and terms of said Wildland-Urban Interface Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, 
adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this legislation, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, 
prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 103.1. Insert: [NAME OF DEPARTMENT] 

Section 109.4.7. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS] 

Section 1 14.4. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT] in two places 

Section 3. That [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE 

TITLE OF THE LEGISLATION OR LAWS IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MEN- 
TION] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this legislation is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby 
declares that it would have passed this law, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that 
any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this legislation or in the Wildland-Urban Interface Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect 
any suit or proceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action 
acquired or existing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this law; nor shall any just or legal right 
or remedy of any character be lost, impaired or affected by this legislation. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this legislation to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the legislation is to be published and to specify 
that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this law and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby 
shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

Section 8. Specific boundaries of natural or man-made features of wildland-urban interface areas shall be as shown on the wild- 
land-urban interface area map. The legal description of such areas is as described as follows: [INSERT LEGAL DESCRIPTION] 

2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE ' xi 



xii 2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 



s mBLE Or LfwIM S tN I S 



CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION .... 1 

PART 1— GENERAL PROVISIONS 1 

Section 

101 Scope and General Requirements 1 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 1 

1 02 Applicability 1 

103 Enforcement Agency 2 

104 Authority of the Code Official 2 

105 Compliance Alternatives 2 

106 Appeals 3 

107 Permits 3 

108 Plans and Specifications 5 

1 09 Inspection and Enforcement 5 

110 Certificate of Completion 8 

1 1 1 Temporary Structures and Uses 8 

112 Fees 8 

1 1 3 Service Utilities 8 

1 14 Stop Work Order 8 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS H 

Section 

201 General H 

202 Definitions ' 1 

CHAPTER 3 WILDLAND-URBAN 

INTERFACE AREAS 13 

Section 

301 General 13 

302 Wildland-urban Interface Area Designations 13 

CHAPTER 4 WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE 

AREA REQUIREMENTS 15 

Section 

401 General ,5 

402 Applicability 15 

403 Access 15 

404 Water Supply ]6 

405 Fire Protection Plan 17 



CHAPTER 5 SPECIAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 
REGULATIONS 19 

Section 

501 General 19 

502 Fire Hazard Severity 19 

503 Ignition-resistant Construction and Material 19 

504 Class 1 Ignition-resistant Construction 20 

505 Class 2 Ignition-resistant Construction 21 

506 Class 3 Ignition-resistant Construction 22 

507 Replacement or Repair of Roof Coverings 23 

CHAPTER 6 FIRE PROTECTION 

REQUIREMENTS 25 

Section 

601 General 25 

602 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 25 

603 Defensible Space 25 

604 Maintenance of Defensible Space 26 

605 Spark Arresters 26 

606 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Installations 26 

607 Storage of Firewood and Combustible 

Materials 26 

CHAPTER 7 REFERENCED STANDARDS 27 

APPENDIX A GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 29 

Section 

A101 General 29 

A102 Vegetation Control 29 

A103 Access Restrictions 30 

A104 Ignition Source Control 30 

A105 Control of Storage 31 

A106 Dumping 31 

A 107 Protection of Pumps and Water 

Storage Facilities 32 

A108 Land Use Limitations 32 

A109 Referenced Standards 32 

APPENDIX B VEGETATION- 
MANAGEMENT PLAN 33 

Section 

B101 General 33 



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XIII 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



APPENDIX C FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY 

FORM 35 

APPENDIX D FIRE DANGER RATING 

SYSTEM 37 

APPENDIX E FINDINGS OF FACT 41 

APPENDIX F CHARACTERISTICS OF 
FIRE-RESISTIVE 
VEGETATION 45 

APPENDIX G SELF-DEFENSE 

MECHANISM 47 

APPENDIX H INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND- 
URBAN INTERFACE CODE 
FLOWCHART 49 



INDEX 



53 



xiv 

2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE a 



CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



PART 1— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



SECTION 101 
SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

[A] 101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the 
Wildland-Urban Interface Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], 
hereinafter referred to as "this code." 

[A] 101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to 
the construction, alteration, movement, repair, maintenance 
and use of any building, structure or premises within the wild- 
land-urban interface areas in this jurisdiction. 

Buildings or conditions in existence at the time of the 
adoption of this code are allowed to have their use or occu- 
pancy continued, if such condition, use or occupancy was 
legal at the time of the adoption of this code, provided such 
continued use does not constitute a distinct danger to life or 
property. 

Buildings or structures moved into or within the jurisdic- 
tion shall comply with the provisions of this code for new 
buildings or structures. 

[A] 101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices 
shall not apply unless specifically adopted. 

[A] 101.3 Objective. The objective of this code is to establish 
minimum regulations consistent with nationally recognized 
good practice for the safeguarding of life and property. Regu- 
lations in this code are intended to mitigate the risk to life and 
structures from intrusion of fire from wildland fire exposures 
and fire exposures from adjacent structures and to mitigate 
structure fires from spreading to wildland fuels. The extent of 
this regulation is intended to be tiered commensurate with the 
relative level of hazard present. 

The unrestricted use of property in wildland- urban inter- 
face areas is a potential threat to life and property from fire 
and resulting erosion. Safeguards to prevent the occurrence of 
fires and to provide adequate fire-protection facilities to con- 
trol the spread of fire in wildland- urban interface areas shall 
be in accordance with this code. 

This code shall supplement the jurisdiction's building and 
fire codes, if such codes have been adopted, to provide for 
special regulations to mitigate the fire- and life-safety hazards 
of the wildland- urban interface areas. 

[A] 101.4 Retroactivity. The provisions of the code shall 
apply to conditions arising after the adoption thereof, condi- 
tions not legally in existence at the adoption of this code and 
conditions which, in the opinion of the code official, consti- 
tute a distinct hazard to life or property. 

Exception: Provisions of this code that specifically apply 
to existing conditions are retroactive. 

[A] 101.5 Additions or alterations. Additions or alterations 
shall be permitted to be made to any building or structure 



without requiring the existing building or structure to comply 
with all of the requirements of this code, provided the addi- 
tion or alteration conforms to that required for a new building 
or structure. 

Exception: Provisions of this code that specifically apply 
to existing conditions are retroactive. 

Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing 
building or structure that will cause the existing building or 
structure to be in violation of any of the provisions of this 
code nor shall such additions or alterations cause the existing 
building or structure to become unsafe. An unsafe condition 
shall be deemed to have been created if an addition or altera- 
tion will cause the existing building or structure to become 
structurally unsafe or overloaded; will not provide adequate 
access in compliance with the provisions of this code or will 
obstruct existing exits or access; will create a fire hazard; will 
reduce required fire resistance or will otherwise create condi- 
tions dangerous to human life. 

[A] 101.6 Maintenance. All buildings, structures, landscape 
materials, vegetation, defensible space or other devices or 
safeguards required by this code shall be maintained in con- 
formance to the code edition under which installed. The 
owner or the owner's designated agent shall be responsible 
for the maintenance of buildings, structures, landscape mate- 
rials and vegetation. 



PART 2— ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

[A] 102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a gen- 
eral requirement and a specific requirement, the specific 
requirement shall govern. Where, in any specific case, differ- 
ent sections of this code specify different materials, methods 
of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive 
shall govern. 

[A] 102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not 
be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal 
law. 

[A] 102.3 Application of references. References to chapter 
or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identi- 
fied by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, 
section or provision of this code. 

[A] 102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed 
in Chapter 7 and such codes and standards shall be consid- 
ered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed 
extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sec- 
tions 102.4.1 and 102.4.2. 



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[A] 102.4.1 Conflicts. Where conflicts occur between pro- 
visions of this code and the referenced standards, the pro- 
visions of this code shall govern. 

[A] 102.4.2 Provisions in referenced codes and stan- 
dards. Where the extent of the reference to a referenced 
code or standard includes subject matter that is within the 
scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applica- 
ble, shall take precedence over the provisions in the refer- 
enced standard. 

[A] 102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or pro- 
vision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not 
have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts 
or provisions. 

[A] 102.6 Existing conditions. The legal occupancy or use of 
any structure or condition existing on the date of adoption of 
this code shall be permitted to continue without change, 
except as is specifically covered in this code, the Interna- 
tional Property Maintenance Code or the International Fire 
Code, or as is deemed necessary by the code official for the 
general safety and welfare of the occupants and the public. 



SECTION 103 
ENFORCEMENT AGENCY 

[A] 103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The department 
of [INSERT name OF department] is hereby created and the 
official in charge thereof shall be known as the code official. 

[A] 103.2 Appointment. The code official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

[A] 103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the 
appointing authority, the code official shall have the authority 
to appoint a deputy(s). Such employees shall have powers as 
delegated by the code official. 



SECTION 104 
AUTHORITY OF THE CODE OFFICIAL 

[A] 104.1 Powers and duties of the code official. The code 
official is hereby authorized to enforce the provisions of this 
code. The code official shall have the authority to render 
interpretations of this code and to adopt policies and proce- 
dures in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such 
interpretations, policies and procedures shall not have the 
effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in 
this code. 

[A] 104.2 Interpretations, rules and regulations. The code 
official shall have the power to render interpretations of this 
code and to adopt and enforce rules and supplemental regula- 
tions to clarify the application of its provisions. Such inter- 
pretations, rules and regulations shall be in conformance to 
the intent and purpose of this code. 

A copy of such rules and regulations shall be filed with the 
clerk of the jurisdiction and shall be in effect immediately 
thereafter. Additional copies shall be available for distribu- 
tion to the public. 



[A] 104.3 Liability of the code official. The code official, 
member of the board of appeals or employee charged with the 
enforcement of this code, acting in good faith and without 
malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or 
other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be ren- 
dered personally liable for damages that may accrue to per- 
sons or property as a result of an act or by reason of an act or 
omission in the discharge of such duties. A suit brought 
against the code official or employee because of such act or 
omission performed by the code official or employee in the 
enforcement of any provision of such codes or other pertinent 
laws or ordinances implemented through the enforcement of 
this code or enforced by the code enforcement agency shall 
be defended by this jurisdiction until final termination of such 
proceedings, and any judgment resulting therefrom shall be 
assumed by this jurisdiction. The code enforcement agency or 
its parent jurisdiction shall not be held as assuming any liabil- 
ity by reason of the inspections authorized by this code or any 
permits or certificates issued under this code. 

[A] 104.4 Subjects not regulated by this code. Where no 
applicable standards or requirements are set forth in this code, 
or are contained within other laws, codes, regulations, ordi- 
nances or policies adopted by the jurisdiction, compliance 
with applicable standards of other nationally recognized 
safety standards, as approved, shall be deemed as prima facie 
evidence of compliance with the intent of this code. 

[A] 104.5 Matters not provided for. Requirements that are 
essential for the public safety of an existing or proposed 
activity, building or structure, or for the safety of the occu- 
pants thereof, which are not specifically provided for by this 
code, shall be determined by the code official consistent with 
the necessity to establish the minimum requirements to safe- 
guard the public health, safety and general welfare. 

[A] 104.6 Applications and permits. The code official is 
authorized to receive applications, review construction docu- 
ments and issue permits for construction regulated by this 
code, issue permits for operations regulated by this code, 
inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued 
and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code. 

[A] 104.7 Other agencies. When requested to do so by the 
code official, other officials of this jurisdiction shall assist 
and cooperate with the code official in the discharge of the 
duties required by this code. 



SECTION 105 
COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES 

[A] 105.1 Practical difficulties. When there are practical dif- 
ficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, 
the code official is authorized to grant modifications for indi- 
vidual cases on application in writing by the owner or a duly 
authorized representative. The code official shall first find 
that a special individual reason makes enforcement of the 
strict letter of this code impractical, the modification is in 
conformance to the intent and purpose of this code, and the 
modification does not lessen any fire protection requirements 
or any degree of structural integrity. The details of any action 
granting modifications shall be recorded and entered into the 
files of the code enforcement agency. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



If the code official determines that difficult terrain, danger 
of erosion or other unusual circumstances make strict compli- 
ance with the vegetation control provisions of the code detri- 
mental to safety or impractical, enforcement thereof may be 
suspended, provided that reasonable alternative measures are 
taken. 

[A] 105.2 Technical assistance. To determine the acceptabil- 
ity of technologies, processes, products, facilities, materials 
and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building 
or premises subject to the inspection of the code official, the 
code official is authorized to require the owner or the person 
in possession or control of the building or premises to pro- 
vide, without charge to the jurisdiction, a technical opinion 
and report. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a 
qualified engineer, specialist, laboratory or fire safety spe- 
cialty organization acceptable to the code official and the 
owner and shall analyze the fire safety of the design, opera- 
tion or use of the building or premises, the facilities and 
appurtenances situated thereon and fuel management for pur- 
poses of establishing fire hazard severity to recommend nec- 
essary changes. 

[A] 105.3 Alternative materials or methods. The code offi- 
cial, in concurrence with approval from the building official 
and fire chief, is authorized to approve alternative materials 
or methods, provided that the code official finds that the pro- 
posed design, use or operation satisfactorily complies with 
the intent of this code and that the alternative is, for the pur- 
pose intended, at least equivalent to the level of quality, 
strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety 
prescribed by this code. Approvals under the authority herein 
contained shall be subject to the approval of the building offi- 
cial whenever the alternate material or method involves mat- 
ters regulated by the International Building Code. 

The code official shall require that sufficient evidence or 
proof be submitted to substantiate any claims that may be 
made regarding its use. The details of any action granting 
approval of an alternate shall be recorded and entered in the 
files of the code enforcement agency. 



SECTION 106 
APPEALS 

[A] 106.1 General. To determine the suitability of alternative 
materials and methods and to provide for reasonable interpre- 
tations of the provisions of this code, there shall be and 
hereby is created a board of appeals consisting of five mem- 
bers who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
judgment on pertinent matters. The code official, building 
official and fire chief shall be ex officio members, and the 
code official shall act as secretary of the board. The board of 
appeals shall be appointed by the legislative body and shall 
hold office at their discretion. The board shall adopt reason- 
able rules and regulations for conducting its investigations 
and shall render decisions and findings in writing to the code 
official, with a duplicate copy to the applicant. 

[A] 106.2 Limitations of authority. The board of appeals 
shall not have authority relative to interpretation of the 



administrative provisions of this code and shall not have 
authority to waive requirements of this code. 



SECTION 107 
PERMITS 

[A] 107.1 General. When not otherwise provided in the 
requirements of the building or fire code, permits are required 
in accordance with Sections 107.2 through 107.10. 

[A] 107.2 Permits required. Unless otherwise exempted, no 
building or structure regulated by this code shall be erected, 
constructed, altered, repaired, moved, removed, converted, 
demolished or changed in use or occupancy unless a separate 
permit for each building or structure has first been obtained 
from the code official. 

For buildings or structures erected for temporary uses, see 
Appendix A, Section A108.3, of this code. 

When required by the code official, a permit shall be 
obtained for the following activities, operations, practices or 
functions within a wildland-urban interface area: 

1 . Automobile wrecking yard. 

2. Candles and open flames in assembly areas. 

3. Explosives or blasting agents. 

4. Fireworks. 

5. Flammable or combustible liquids. 

6. Hazardous materials. 

7. Liquefied petroleum gases. 

8. Lumberyards. 

9. Motor vehicle fuel-dispensing stations. 

10. Open burning. 

11. Pyrotechnical special effects material. 

12. Tents, canopies and temporary membrane structures. 

13. Tire storage. 

14. Welding and cutting operations. 

[A] 107.3 Work exempt from permit. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided in the requirements of the International Building Code 
or International Fire Code, a permit shall not be required for 
the following: 

1. One-story detached accessory structures used as tool 
and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, pro- 
vided the floor area does not exceed 120 square feet 
(11.15 m 2 ) and the structure is located more than 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from the nearest adjacent structure. 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1 829 mm) high. 
Exemption from the permit requirements of this code shall 

not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done 
in any manner in violation of the provisions of this code or 
any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

The code official is authorized to stipulate conditions for 
permits. Permits shall not be issued when public safety would 
be at risk, as determined by the code official. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE ! 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 107.4 Permit application. To obtain a permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the code enforcement agency for that purpose. 
Every such application shall: 

1. Identify and describe the work, activity, operation, 
practice or function to be covered by the permit for 
which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work, activity, 
operation, practice or function is to be done by legal 
description, street address or similar description that 
will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed 
building, work, activity, operation, practice or function. 

3. Indicate the use or occupancy for which the proposed 
work, activity, operation, practice or function is 
intended. 

4. Be accompanied by plans, diagrams, computation and 
specifications and other data as required in Section 108 
of this code. 

5. State the valuation of any new building or structure or 
any addition, remodeling or alteration to an existing 
building. 

6. Be signed by the applicant or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as may be 
required by the code official. 

[A] 107.4.1 Preliminary inspection. Before a permit is 
issued, the code official is authorized to inspect and 
approve the systems, equipment, buildings, devices, prem- 
ises and spaces or areas to be used. 

[A] 107.4.2 Time limitation of application. An applica- 
tion for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to 
have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, 
unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a 
permit has been issued; except that the code official is 
authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for 
additional periods not exceeding 180 days each. The 
extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

[A] 107.5 Permit approval. Before a permit is issued, the 
code official, or an authorized representative, shall review 
and approve all permitted uses, occupancies or structures. 
Where laws or regulations are enforceable by other agencies 
or departments, a joint approval shall be obtained from all 
agencies or departments concerned. 

[A] 107.6 Permit issuance. The application, plans, specifica- 
tions and other data filed by an applicant for a permit shall be 
reviewed by the code official. If the code official finds that 
the work described in an application for a permit and the plan, 
specifications and other data filed therewith conform to the 
requirements of this code, the code official is allowed to issue 
a permit to the applicant. 

When the code official issues the permit, the code official 
shall endorse in writing or stamp the plans and specifications 
APPROVED. Such approved plans and specifications shall 
not be changed, modified or altered without authorization 



from the code official, and all work regulated by this code 
shall be done in accordance with the approved plans. 

[A] 107.6.1 Refusal to issue a permit. Where the applica- 
tion or construction documents do not conform to the 
requirements of pertinent laws, the code official shall 
reject such application in writing, stating the reasons 
therefor. 

[A] 107.7 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a 
permit or approval of plans, specifications and computations 
shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, 
any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any 
other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give 
authority to violate or conceal the provisions of this code or 
other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. 

[A] 107.8 Expiration. Every permit issued by the code offi- 
cial under the provisions of this code shall expire by limita- 
tion and become null and void if the building, use or work 
authorized by such permit is not commenced within 1 80 days 
from the date of such permit, or if the building, use or work 
authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned at any 
time after the work is commenced for a period of 180 days. 

Any permittee holding an unexpired permit may apply for 
an extension of the time within which work may commence 
under that permit when the permittee is unable to commence 
work within the time required by this section for good and 
satisfactory reasons. The code official may extend the time 
for action by the permittee for a period not exceeding 180 
days on written request by the permittee showing that circum- 
stances beyond the control of the permittee have prevented 
action from being taken. No permit shall be extended more 
than once. 

[A] 107.9 Retention of permits. Permits shall at all times be 
kept on the premises designated therein and shall at all times 
be subject to inspection by the code official or other autho- 
rized representative. 

IA] 107.10 Revocation of permits. Permits issued under this 
code may be suspended or revoked when it is determined by 
the code official that: 

1 . It is used by a person other than the person to whom the 
permit was issued. 

2. It is used for a location other than that for which the 
permit was issued. 

3. Any of the conditions or limitations set forth in the per- 
mit have been violated. 

4. The permittee fails, refuses or neglects to comply with 
any order or notice duly served on him under the provi- 
sions of this code within the time provided therein. 

5. There has been any false statement or misrepresenta- 
tion as to material fact in the application or plans on 
which the permit or application was made. 

6. When the permit is issued in error or in violation of any 
other ordinance, regulations or provisions of this code. 

The code official is allowed to, in writing, suspend or 
revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code 
whenever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incor- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



rect information supplied, or in violation of any ordinance or 
regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 108 
PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

[A] 108.1 General. Plans, engineering calculations, diagrams 
and other data shall be submitted in at least two sets with each 
application for a permit. The construction documents shall be 
prepared by a registered design professional where required 
by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be 
constructed. Where special conditions exist, the code official 
is authorized to require additional documents to be prepared 
by a registered design professional. 

Exception: Submission of plans, calculations, construc- 
tion inspection requirements and other data, if it is found 
that the nature of the work applied for is such that review- 
ing of plans is not necessary to obtain compliance with 
this code. 

[A] 108.2 Information on plans and specifications. Plans 
and specifications shall be drawn to scale upon substantial 
paper or cloth and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the 
location, nature and extent of the work proposed, and show in 
detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and 
all relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations. 

[A] 108.3 Site plan. In addition to the requirements for plans 
in the International Building Code, site plans shall include 
topography, width and percent of grade of access roads, land- 
scape and vegetation details, locations of structures or build- 
ing envelopes, existing or proposed overhead utilities, 
occupancy classification of buildings, types of ignition-resis- 
tant construction of buildings, structures and their append- 
ages, roof classification of buildings and site water supply 
systems. The code official is authorized to waive or modify 
the requirement for a site plan when the application for per- 
mit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted. 

[A] 108.4 Vegetation management plans. When utilized by 
the permit applicant pursuant to Section 502, vegetation man- 
agement plans shall be prepared and shall be submitted to the 
code official for review and approval as part of the plans 
required for a permit. 

| A] 108.5 Fire protection plan. When required by the code 
official pursuant to Section 405, a fire protection plan shall be 
prepared and shall be submitted to the code official for 
review and approved as a part of the plans required for a per- 
mit. 

[A] 108.6 Other data and substantiation. When required by 
the code official, the plans and specifications shall include 
classification of fuel loading, fuel model light, medium or 
heavy, and substantiating data to verify classification of fire- 
resistive vegetation. 

[A] 108.7 Vicinity plan. In addition to the requirements for 
site plans, plans shall include details regarding the vicinity 
| within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of lot lines, including other 
structures, slope, vegetation, fuel breaks, water supply sys- 
tems and access roads. 



[A] 108.8 Retention of plans. One set of approved plans, 
specifications and computations shall be retained by the code 
official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of 
completion of the permitted work or as required by state or 
local laws; and one set of approved plans and specifications 
shall be returned to the applicant, and said set shall be kept on 
the site of the building, use or work at all times during which 
the work authorized thereby is in progress. 

[A] 108.9 Examination of documents. The code official 
shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying 
construction documents and shall ascertain by such examina- 
tions whether the construction indicated and described is in 
accordance with the requirements of this code and other perti- 
nent laws or ordinances. 

[A] 108.10 Amended documents. Changes made during 
construction that are not in compliance with the approved 
documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended 
set of construction documents. 

[A] 108.11 Previous approvals. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or desig- 
nated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has 
been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and 
the construction of which has been pursued in good faith 
within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has 
not been abandoned. 

[A] 108.12 Phased approval. The code official is authorized 
to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or any 
other part of a building or structure before the construction 
documents for the whole building or structure have been sub- 
mitted, provided that adequate information and detailed state- 
ments have been filed complying with pertinent requirements 
of this code. The holder of such permit for the foundation or 
other parts of a building or structure shall proceed at the 
holder's own risk with the building operation and without 
assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted. 



SECTION 109 
INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT 

[A] 109.1 Inspection. Inspections shall be in accordance with 
Sections 109.1.1 through 109.1.4.3. 

[A] 109.1.1 General. All construction or work for which a 
permit is required by this code shall be subject to inspec- 
tion by the code official and all such construction or work 
shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection pur- 
poses until approved by the code official. 

It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the 
work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection pur- 
poses. Neither the code official nor the jurisdiction shall 
be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replace- 
ment of any material required to allow inspection. 

Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be con- 
strued to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of 
this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspec- 
tions presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the 
provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the juris- 
diction shall not be valid. 



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Where required by the code official, a survey of the lot 
shall be provided to verify that the mitigation features are 
provided and the building or structure is located in accor- 
dance with the approved plans. 

[A] 109.1.2 Authority to inspect. The code official shall 
inspect, as often as necessary, buildings and premises, 
including such other hazards or appliances designated by 
the code official for the purpose of ascertaining and caus- 
ing to be corrected any conditions that could reasonably be 
expected to cause fire or contribute to its spread, or any 
violation of the purpose of this code and of any other law 
or standard affecting fire safety. 

[A] 109.1.2.1 Approved inspection agencies. The 
code official is authorized to accept reports of approved 
inspection agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the 
requirements as to qualifications and reliability. 

[A] 109.1.2.2 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty 
of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized 
agent to notify the code official when work is ready for 
inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to 
provide access to and means for inspections of such 
work that are required by this code. 

[A] 109.1.2.3 Approval required. Work shall not be 
done beyond the point indicated in each successive 
inspection without first obtaining the approval of the 
code official. The code official, upon notification, shall 
make the requested inspections and shall either indicate 
the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as 
completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her 
agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. 
Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and 
such portion shall not be covered or concealed until 
authorized by the code official. 

[A] 109.1.3 Reinspections. To determine compliance with 
this code, the code official may cause a structure to be 
reinspected. A fee may be assessed for each inspection or 
reinspection when such portion of work for which inspec- 
tion is called is not complete or when corrections called 
for are not made. 

Reinspection fees may be assessed when the approved 
plans are not readily available to the inspector, for failure 
to provide access on the date for which inspection is 
requested or for deviating from plans requiring the 
approval of the code official. 

To obtain a reinspection, the applicant shall pay the 
reinspection fee as set forth in the fee schedule adopted by 
the jurisdiction. When reinspection fees have been 
assessed, no additional inspection of the work will be per- 
formed until the required fees have been paid. 

[A] 109.1.4 Testing. Installations shall be tested as 
required in this code and in accordance with Sections 
109.1.4.1 through 109.1.4.3. Tests shall be made by the 
permit holder or authorized agent and observed by the 
code official. 

[A] 109.1.4.1 New, altered, extended or repaired 
installations. New installations and parts of existing 
installations, which have been altered, extended, reno- 



vated or repaired, shall be tested as prescribed herein to 
disclose defects. 

[A] 109.1.4.2 Apparatus, instruments, material and 
labor for tests. Apparatus, instruments, material and 
labor required for testing an installation or part thereof 
shall be furnished by the permit holder or authorized 
agent. 

[A] 109.1.4.3 Reinspection and testing. Where any 
work or installation does not pass an initial test or 
inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made so 
as to achieve compliance with this code. The work or 
installation shall then be resubmitted to the code offi- 
cial for inspection and testing. 

[A] 109.2 Enforcement. Enforcement shall be in accordance 
with Sections 109.2.1 and 109.2.2. 

[A] 109.2.1 Authorization to issue corrective orders 
and notices. When the code official finds any building or 
premises that are in violation of this code, the code official 
is authorized to issue corrective orders and notices. 

[A] 109.2.2 Service of orders and notices. Orders and 
notices authorized or required by this code shall be given 
or served on the owner, operator, occupant or other person 
responsible for the condition or violation either by verbal 
notification, personal service, or delivering the same to, 
and leaving it with, a person of suitable age and discretion 
on the premises; or, if no such person is found on the 
premises, by affixing a copy thereof in a conspicuous 
place on the door to the entrance of said premises and by 
mailing a copy thereof to such person by registered or cer- 
tified mail to the person's last known address. 

Orders or notices that are given verbally shall be con- 
firmed by service in writing as herein provided. 

[A] 109.3 Right of entry. Whenever necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce any of the provisions of this code, or 
whenever the code official has reasonable cause to believe 
that there exists in any building or on any premises any con- 
dition that makes such building or premises unsafe, the code 
official is authorized to enter such building or premises at all 
reasonable times to inspect the same or to perform any duty 
authorized by this code, provided that if such building or 
premises is occupied, the code official shall first present 
proper credentials and request entry; and if such building or 
premises is unoccupied, the code official shall first make a 
reasonable effort to locate the owner or other persons having 
charge or control of the building or premises and request 
entry. 

If such entry is refused, the code official shall have 
recourse to every remedy provided by law to secure entry. 
Owners, occupants or any other persons having charge, care 
or control of any building or premises, shall, after proper 
request is made as herein provided, promptly permit entry 
therein by the code official for the purpose of inspection and 
examination pursuant to this code. 

[A] 109.4 Compliance with orders and notices. Compli- 
ance with orders and notices shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions 109.4.1 through 109.4.8. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 4 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 109.4.1 General compliance. Orders and notices 
issued or served as provided by this code shall be com- 
plied with by the owner, operator, occupant or other per- 
son responsible for the condition or violation to which the 
corrective order or notice pertains. 

If the building or premises is not occupied, such correc- 
tive orders or notices shall be complied with by the owner. 

[A] 109.4.2 Compliance with tags. A building or prem- 
ises shall not be used when in violation of this code as 
noted on a tag affixed in accordance with Section 109.4.1. 

[A] 109.4.3 Removal and destruction of signs and tags. 
A sign or tag posted or affixed by the code official shall 
not be mutilated, destroyed or removed without authoriza- 
tion by the code official. 

|Aj 109.4.4 Citations. Persons operating or maintaining 
an occupancy, premises or vehicle subject to this code 
who allow a hazard to exist or fail to take immediate 
action to abate a hazard on such occupancy, premises or 
vehicle when ordered or notified to do so by the code offi- 
cial shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

[A] 109.4.5 Unsafe conditions. Buildings, structures or 
premises that constitute a fire hazard or are otherwise dan- 
gerous to human life, or which in relation to existing use 
constitute a hazard to safety or health or public welfare, by 
reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsoles- 
cence, fire hazard, disaster damage or abandonment as 
specified in this code or any other ordinance, are unsafe 
conditions. Unsafe buildings or structures shall not be 
used. Unsafe buildings are hereby declared to be public 
nuisances and shall be abated by repair, rehabilitation, 
demolition or removal, pursuant to applicable state and 
local laws and codes. 

[A] 109.4.5.1 Record. The code official shall cause a 
report to be filed on an unsafe condition. The report 
shall state the occupancy of the structure and the nature 
of the unsafe condition. 

[A] 109.4.5.2 Notice. Where an unsafe condition is 
found, the code official shall serve on the owner, agent 
or person in control of the building, structure or prem- 
ises, a written notice that describes the condition 
deemed unsafe and specifies the required repairs or 
improvements to be made to abate the unsafe condition, 
or that requires the unsafe structure to be demolished 
within a stipulated time. Such notice shall require the 
person thus notified, or their designee, to declare within 
a stipulated time to the code official acceptance or 
rejection of the terms of the order. 

[A] 109.4.5.2.1 Method of service. Such notice 
shall be deemed properly served if a copy thereof is 
(a) delivered to the owner personally; (b) sent by 
certified or registered mail addressed to the owner at 
the last known address with the return receipt 
requested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as 
prescribed by local law. If the certified or registered 
letter is returned showing that the letter was not 
delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted in a con- 
spicuous place in or about the structure affected by 



such notice. Service of such notice in the foregoing 
manner upon the owner's agent or upon the person 
responsible for the structure shall constitute service 
of notice upon the owner. 

[A] 109.4.5.3 Placarding. Upon failure of the owner or 
person responsible to comply with the notice provisions 
within the time given, the code official shall post on the 
premises or on defective equipment a placard bearing 
the word "UNSAFE" and a statement of the penalties 
provided for occupying the premises, operating the 
equipment or removing the placard. 

[A] 109.4.5.3.1 Placard removal. The code official 
shall remove the unsafe condition placard whenever 
the defect or defects upon which the unsafe condi- 
tion and placarding action were based have been 
eliminated. Any person who defaces or removes an 
unsafe condition placard without the approval of the 
code official shall be subject to the penalties pro- 
vided by this code. 

[A] 109.4.5.4 Abatement. The owner, operator or 
occupant of a building, structure or premises deemed 
unsafe by the code official shall abate or correct or 
cause to be abated or corrected such unsafe conditions 
either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or other 
approved corrective action. 

[A] 109.4.5.5 Summary abatement. Where conditions 
exist that are deemed hazardous to life and property, 
the code official is authorized to abate or correct sum- 
marily such hazardous conditions that are in violation 
of this code. 

[A] 109.4.5.6 Evacuation. The code official shall be 
authorized to order the immediate evacuation of any 
occupied building structure or premises deemed unsafe 
when such hazardous conditions exist that present 
imminent danger to the occupants. Persons so notified 
shall immediately leave the structure or premises and 
shall not enter or reenter until authorized to do so by the 
code official. 

[A] 109.4.6 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of vio- 
lation is not complied with promptly, the code official is 
authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction 
to institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity 
to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require the 
removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the 
building or structure in violation of the provisions of this 
code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto. 

[A] 109.4.7 Violation penalties. Persons who shall violate 
a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of 
the requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, 
repair or do work in violation of the approved construction 
documents or directive of the code official, or of a permit 
or certificate used under provisions of this code, shall be 
guilty of a [SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not 
more than [AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not 
exceeding [NUMBER OF DAYS], or both such fine and 
imprisonment. Each day that a violation continues after 
due notice has been served shall be deemed a separate 
offense. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 8 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 109.4.8 Abatement of violation. In addition to the 
imposition of the penalties herein described, the code offi- 
cial is authorized to institute appropriate action to prevent 
unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a vio- 
lation; or to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or 
premises; or to stop an illegal act, conduct of business or 
occupancy of a structure on or about any premises. 



SECTION 110 
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION 

[A] 110.1 General. No building, structure or premises shall 
be used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building, structure, premise or portion 
thereof shall be made until the code official has issued a cer- 
tificate of completion therefor as provided herein. The certifi- 
cate of occupancy shall not be issued until the certificate of 
completion indicating that the project is in compliance with 
this code has been issued by the code official. 

[A] 110.2 Certificate of occupancy. Issuance of a certificate 
of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code or of other pertinent laws 
and ordinances of the jurisdiction. Certificates presuming to 
give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code 
or other laws or ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be 
valid. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Certificates of occupancy are not required for work 
exempt from permits under Section 107.3. 

2. Accessory structures. 

[A] 110.3 Temporary occupancy. The code official is 
authorized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy 
before the completion of the entire work covered by the per- 
mit, provided that such portion or portions shall be occupied 
safely. The code official shall set a time period during which 
the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

[A] 110.4 Revocation. The code official is authorized to, in 
writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or com- 
pletion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the 
certificate is issued in error, on the basis of incorrect informa- 
tion supplied, or where it is determined that the building or 
structure, premise or portion thereof is in violation of any 
ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 111 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

[A] 111.1 General. The code official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such 
permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be 
permitted for more than 1 80 days. The code official is autho- 
rized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

[A] 111.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses 
shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of 
egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary require- 
ments of this code as necessary to ensure the public health, 
safety and general welfare. 



[A] 111.3 Termination of approval. The code official is 
authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure 
or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be dis- 
continued. 



SECTION 112 
FEES 

[A] 112.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees 
prescribed in Section 112.2 have been paid, nor shall an 
amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if 
any, has been paid. 

[A] 1 12.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit 
shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as 
established by the applicable governing authority. 

[A] 112.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 
person who commences any work before obtaining the neces- 
sary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established 
by the applicable governing authority, which shall be in addi- 
tion to the required permit fees. 

[A] 112.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the con- 
struction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in 
connection to or concurrently with the work or activity autho- 
rized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of 
the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed 
by law. 

[A] 112.5 Refunds. The applicable governing authority is 
authorized to establish a refund policy. 



SECTION 113 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

[A] 113.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall 
make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or 
power to any building or system that is regulated by this code 
for which a permit is required until released by the code offi- 
cial. 

[A] 113.2 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The 
code official shall have the authority to authorize disconnec- 
tion of utility service to the building, structure or system reg- 
ulated by this code and the referenced codes and standards set 
forth in Section 102.4 in case of emergency where necessary 
to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property or when 
such utility connection has been made without the release 
required by Section 113.1. The code official shall notify the 
serving utility and whenever possible the owner and occupant 
of the building, structure or service system of the decision to 
disconnect prior to taking such action if not notified prior to 
disconnection. The owner or occupant of the building, struc- 
ture or service system shall be notified in writing as soon as 
practical thereafter. 

SECTION 114 
STOP WORK ORDER 

[A] 114.1 Authority. Whenever the code official finds any 
work regulated by this code being performed in a manner 
either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE e 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



unsafe, the code official is authorized to issue a stop work 

order. 

[A] 114.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing 

and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, to 

the owner's authorized agent or to the person doing the work. 

Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall 

immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason 

for the order and the conditions under which the cited work 

will be permitted to resume, 

[A] 114.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the 

code official shall not be required to give a written notice 

prior to stopping the work. 

[A] 114.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue 

any work after having been served with a stop work order, 

except such work as that person is directed to perform to 

remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a 

fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] 

dollars. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 



10 2012 INTERNATIONAL WiLDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE- 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 

GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words stated in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; and the singular number 
includes the plural and the plural the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in other International 
Codes, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them 
as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings such as the con- 
text implies. 



SECTION 202 
DEFINITIONS 

ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. A building or structure used 
to shelter or support any material, equipment, chattel or occu- 
pancy other than a habitable building. 

[A] APPROVED. Approval by the code official as the result 
of review, investigation or tests conducted by the code offi- 
cial or by reason of accepted principles or tests by national 
authorities, or technical or scientific organizations. 

[A] BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any use or occupancy. 

[A] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
the International Building Code, or the building official's 
duly authorized representative. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION. Written documenta- 
tion that the project or work for which a permit was issued 
has been completed in conformance with requirements of this 
code. 

CODE OFFICIAL. The official designated by the jurisdic- 
tion to interpret and enforce this code, or the code official's 
authorized representative. 

CRITICAL FIRE WEATHER. A set of weather conditions 
(usually a combination of low relative humidity and wind) 
whose effects on fire behavior make control difficult and 
threaten fire fighter safety. 

DEFENSIBLE SPACE. An area either natural or man- 
made, where material capable of allowing a fire to spread 
unchecked has been treated, cleared or modified to slow the 
rate and intensity of an advancing wildfire and to create an 
area for fire suppression operations to occur. 



DRIVEWAY. A vehicular ingress and egress route that 
serves no more than two buildings or structures, not including 
accessory structures, or more than five dwelling units. 

[B] DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwell- 
ing units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, 
leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

[F] FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer or the chief officer's 
authorized representative of the fire department serving the 
jurisdiction. 

FIRE FLOW CALCULATION AREA. The floor area, in 
square feet (square meters), used to determine the adequate 
water supply. 

FIRE PROTECTION PLAN. A document prepared for a 
specific project or development proposed for the wildland- 
urban interface area. It describes ways to minimize and miti- 
gate the fire problems created by the project or development, 
with the purpose of reducing impact on the community's fire 
protection delivery system. 

FIRE WEATHER. Weather conditions favorable to the 
ignition and rapid spread of fire. In wildfires, this generally 
includes high temperatures combined with strong winds and 
low humidity. See "Critical fire weather." 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION. The 
use of materials and systems in the design and construction of 
a building or structure to safeguard against the spread of fire 
within a building or structure and the spread of fire to or from 
buildings or structures to the wildland-urban interface area. 

[B] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual 
measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a mate- 
rial tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

FUEL BREAK. An area, strategically located for fighting 
anticipated fires, where the native vegetation has been perma- 
nently modified or replaced so that fires burning into it can be 
more easily controlled. Fuel breaks divide fire-prone areas 
into smaller areas for easier fire control and to provide access 
for fire fighting. 

FUEL, HEAVY. Vegetation consisting of round wood 3 to 8 
inches (76 to 203 mm) in diameter. See Fuel Models G, I, J, 
K and U described in Appendix D. 

FUEL, LIGHT. Vegetation consisting of herbaceous plants 

and round wood less than V 4 inch (6.4 mm) in diameter. See 

Fuel Models A, C, E, L, N, P, R and S described in Appendix 

D. 

FUEL, MEDIUM. Vegetation consisting of round wood V 4 

to 3 inches (6.4 mm to 76 mm) in diameter. See Fuel Models 

B, D, F, H, O, Q and T described in Appendix D. 

FUEL MODIFICATION. A method of modifying fuel load 
by reducing the amount of nonfire-resistive vegetation or 
altering the type of vegetation to reduce the fuel load. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE" 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



FUEL MOSAIC. A fuel modification system that provides 
for the creation of islands and irregular boundaries to reduce 
the visual and ecological impact of fuel modification. 

FUEL-LOADING. The oven-dry weight of fuels in a given 
area, usually expressed in pounds per acre (lb/a) (kg/ha). Fuel 
loading may be referenced to fuel size or timelag categories, 
and may include surface fuels or total fuels. 

GREEN BELT. A fuel break designated for a use other than 
fire protection. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. As defined in the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

HEAVY TIMBER CONSTRUCTION. As described in the 
International Building Code. 

IGNITION-RESISTANT BUILDING MATERIAL. A 
type of building material that resists ignition or sustained 
flaming combustion sufficiently so as to reduce losses from 
wildland-urban interface conflagrations under worst-case 
weather and fuel conditions with wildfire exposure of burn- 
ing embers and small flames, as prescribed in Section 503. 

IGNITION-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION, CLASS 1. 
A schedule of additional requirements for construction in 
wildland-urban interface areas based on extreme fire hazard. 

IGNITION-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION, CLASS 2. 
A schedule of additional requirements for construction in 
wildland-urban interface areas based on high fire hazard. 

IGNITION-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION, CLASS 3. 
A schedule of additional requirements for construction in 
wildland-urban interface areas based on moderate fire hazard. 

LOG WALL CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction in 
which exterior walls are constructed of solid wood members 
and where the smallest horizontal dimension of each solid 
wood member is at least 6 inches (152 mm). 

MULTILAYERED GLAZED PANELS. Window or door 
assemblies that consist of two or more independently glazed 
panels installed parallel to each other, having a sealed air gap 
in between, within a frame designed to fill completely the 
window or door opening in which the assembly is intended to 
be installed. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE. As applied to building construction 
material means a material that, in the form in which it is used, 
is either one of the following: 

1. Material of which no part will ignite and burn when 
subjected to fire. Any material conforming to ASTM E 
136 shall be considered noncombustible within the 
meaning of this section. 

2. Material having a structural base of noncombustible 
material as defined in Item 1 above, with a surfacing 
material not over 7 8 inch (3.2 mm) thick, which has a 
flame spread index of 50 or less. Flame spread index as 
used herein refers to a flame spread index obtained 
according to tests conducted as specified in ASTM E 
84 or UL 723. 

"Noncombustible" does not apply to surface finish materi- 
als. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clear- 
ances to flues, heating appliances or other sources of high 



temperature shall refer to material conforming to Item 1 . No 
material shall be classified as noncombustible that is subject 
to increase in combustibility or flame spread index, beyond 
the limits herein established, through the effects of age, mois- 
ture or other atmospheric condition. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE ROOF COVERING. One of the 
following: 

1. Cement shingles or sheets. 

2. Exposed concrete slab roof. 

3. Ferrous or copper shingles or sheets. 

4. Slate shingles. 

5. Clay or concrete roofing tile. 

6. Approved roof covering of noncombustible material. 

SLOPE. The variation of terrain from the horizontal; the 
number of feet (meters) rise or fall per 100 feet (30 480 mm) 
measured horizontally, expressed as a percentage. 

[A] STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed, an 
edifice or building of any kind, or any piece of work artifi- 
cially built up or composed of parts joined together in some 
manner. 

[Z] SUBDIVISION. The division of a tract, lot or parcel of 
land into two or more lots, plats, sites or other divisions of 
land. 

TREE CROWN. The primary and secondary branches 
growing out from the main stem, together with twigs and foli- 
age. 

UNENCLOSED ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. An acces- 
sory structure without a complete exterior wall system 
enclosing the area under roof or floor above. 

WILDFIRE. An uncontrolled fire spreading through vegeta- 
tive fuels, exposing and possibly consuming structures. 

WILDLAND. An area in which development is essentially 
nonexistent, except for roads, railroads, power lines and simi- 
lar facilities. 

WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE AREA. That geo- 
graphical area where structures and other human develop- 
ment meets or intermingles with wildland or vegetative fuels. 



12 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 4 



CHAPTER 3 

WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE AREAS 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter provide method- 
ology to establish and record wildland-urban interface areas 
based on the findings of fact. 

301.2 Objective. The objective of this chapter is to provide 
simple baseline criteria for determining wildland-urban inter- 
face areas. 



SECTION 302 

WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE AREA 

DESIGNATIONS 

302.1 Declaration. The legislative body shall declare the 
wildland-urban interface areas within the jurisdiction. The 
wildland-urban interface areas shall be based on the findings 
of fact. The wildland-urban interface area boundary shall 
correspond to natural or man-made features. 

302.2 Mapping. The wildland-urban interface areas shall be 
recorded on maps available for inspection by the public. 

302.3 Review of wildland-urban interface areas. The code 
official shall reevaluate and recommend modification to the 
wildland-urban interface areas in accordance with Section 
302.1 on a three-year basis or more frequently as deemed 
necessary by the legislative body. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE' 13 



14 2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE" 



CHAPTER 4 

WiLDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE AREA REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. Wildland-urban interface areas shall be pro- 
vided with emergency vehicle access and water supply in 
accordance with this chapter. 

401.2 Objective. The objective of this chapter is to establish 
the minimum requirements for emergency vehicle access and 
water supply for buildings and structures located in the wild- 
land-urban interface areas. 

401.3 General safety precautions. General safety precau- 
tions shall be in accordance with this chapter. See also 
Appendix A. 

SECTION 402 
APPLICABILITY 

402.1 Subdivisions. Subdivisions shall comply with Sections 
402.1.1 and 402.1.2. 

402.1.1 Access. New subdivisions, as determined by this 
jurisdiction, shall be provided with fire apparatus access 
roads in accordance with the International Fire Code and 
access requirements in accordance with Section 403. 

402.1.2 Water supply. New subdivisions as determined 
by this jurisdiction shall be provided with water supply in 
accordance with Section 404. 

402.2 Individual structures. Individual structures shall com- 
ply with Sections 402.2.1 and 402.2.2. 

402.2.1 Access. Individual structures hereafter constructed 
or relocated into or within wildland-urban interface areas 
shall be provided with fire apparatus access in accordance 
with the International Fire Code and driveways in accor- 
dance with Section 403.2. Marking of fire protection 
equipment shall be provided in accordance with Section 
403.5 and address markers shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 403.6. 

402.2.2 Water supply. Individual structures hereafter 
constructed or relocated into or within wildland-urban 
interface areas shall be provided with a conforming water 
supply in accordance with Section 404. 

Exceptions: 

1. Structures constructed to meet the requirements 
for the class of ignition-resistant construction 
specified in Table 503.1 for a nonconforming 
water supply. 

2. Buildings containing only private garages, car- 
ports, sheds and agricultural buildings with a 
floor area of not more than 600 square feet (56 
m 2 ). 

402.3 Existing conditions. Existing buildings shall be pro- 
vided with address markers in accordance with Section 403.6. 



Existing roads and fire protection equipment shall be pro- 
vided with markings in accordance with Sections 403.4 and 
403.5, respectively. 



SECTION 403 

ACCESS 

403.1 Restricted access. Where emergency vehicle access is 
restricted because of secured access roads or driveways or 
where immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire- 
fighting purposes, the code official is authorized to require a 
key box to be installed in an accessible location. The key box 
shall be of a type approved by the code official and shall con- 
tain keys to gain necessary access as required by the code 
official. 

403.2 Driveways. Driveways shall be provided when any 
portion of an exterior wall of the first story of a building is 
located more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a fire apparatus 
access road. 

403.2.1 Dimensions. Driveways shall provide a minimum 
unobstructed width of 12 feet (3658 mm) and a minimum 
unobstructed height of 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm). 

403.2.2 Length. Driveways in excess of 150 feet (45 720 
mm) in length shall be provided with turnarounds. Drive- 
ways in excess of 200 feet (60 960 mm) in length and less 
than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width shall be provided with 
turnouts in addition to turnarounds. 

403.2.3 Service limitations. A driveway shall not serve in 
excess of five dwelling units. 

Exception: When such driveways meet the require- 
ments for fire apparatus access road in accordance with 
Section 503 of the International Fire Code. 

403.2.4 Turnarounds. Driveway turnarounds shall have 
inside turning radii of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) and 
outside turning radii of not less than 45 feet (13 716 mm). 
Driveways that connect with a road or roads at more than 
one point shall be considered as having a turnaround if all 
changes of direction meet the radii requirements for drive- 
way turnarounds. 

403.2.5 Turnouts. Driveway turnouts shall be an all- 
weather road surface at least 10 feet (3048 mm) wide and 
30 feet (9144 mm) long. Driveway turnouts shall be 
located as required by the code official. 

403.2.6 Bridges. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at 
both entrances to bridges on driveways and private roads. 
Design loads for bridges shall be established by the code 
official. 

403.3 Fire apparatus access road. When required, fire appa- 
ratus access roads shall be all-weather roads with a minimum 
width of 20 feet (6096 mm) and a clear height of 13 feet 6 
inches (4115 mm); shall be designed to accommodate the 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WiLDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 



15 



WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE AREA REQUIREMENTS 



loads and turning radii for fire apparatus; and shall have a 
gradient negotiable by the specific fire apparatus normally 
used at that location within the jurisdiction. Dead-end roads 
in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided 
with turnarounds as approved by the code official. An all- 
weather road surface shall be any surface material acceptable 
to the code official that would normally allow the passage of 
emergency service vehicles typically used to respond to that 
location within the jurisdiction. 

403.4 Marking of roads. Approved signs or other approved 
notices shall be provided and maintained for access roads and 
driveways to identify such roads and prohibit the obstruction 
thereof or both. 

403.4.1 Sign construction. AH road identification signs 
and supports shall be of noncombustible materials. Signs 
shall have minimum 4-inch-high (102 mm) reflective let- 
ters with 7,-inch (12.7 mm) stroke on a contrasting 6-inch- 
high (152 mm) sign. Road identification signage shall be 
mounted at a height of 7 feet (2134 mm) from the road 
surface to the bottom of the sign. 

403.5 Marking of fire protection equipment. Fire protec- 
tion equipment and fire hydrants shall be clearly identified in 
a manner approved by the code official to prevent obstruc- 
tion. 

403.6 Address markers. All buildings shall have a perma- 
nently posted address, which shall be placed at each driveway 
entrance and be visible from both directions of travel along 
the road. In all cases, the address shall be posted at the begin- 
ning of construction and shall be maintained thereafter, and 
the address shall be visible and legible from the road on 
which the address is located. 

403.6.1 Signs along one-way roads. Address signs along 
one-way roads shall be visible from both the intended 
direction of travel and the opposite direction. 

403.6.2 Multiple addresses. Where multiple addresses 
are required at a single driveway, they shall be mounted on 
a single post, and additional signs shall be posted at loca- 
tions where driveways divide. 

403.6.3 Single business sites. Where a roadway provides 
access solely to a single commercial or industrial business, 
the address sign shall be placed at the nearest road inter- 
section providing access to that site. 

403.7 Grade. The gradient for fire apparatus access roads 
and driveways shall not exceed the maximum approved by 
the code official. 



SECTION 404 
WATER SUPPLY 

404.1 General. When provided in order to qualify as a con- 
forming water supply for the purpose of Table 503.1 or as 
required for new subdivisions in accordance with Section 
402.1.2, an approved water source shall have an adequate 



water supply for the use of the fire protection service to pro- 
tect buildings and structures from exterior fire sources or to 
suppress structure fires within the wildland-urban interface 
area of the jurisdiction in accordance with this section. 

Exception: Buildings containing only private garages, 
carports, sheds and agricultural buildings with a floor area 
of not more than 600 square feet (56 m 2 ). 

404.2 Water sources. The point at which a water source is 
available for use shall be located not more than 1 ,000 feet 
(305 m) from the building and be approved by the code offi- 
cial. The distance shall be measured along an unobstructed 
line of travel. 

Water sources shall comply with the following: 

1. Man made water sources shall have a minimum usable 
water volume as determined by the adequate water sup- 
ply needs in accordance with Section 404.5. This water 
source shall be equipped with an approved hydrant. 
The water level of the water source shall be maintained 
by rainfall, water pumped from a well, water hauled by 
a tanker or by seasonal high water of a stream or river. 
The design, construction, location, water level mainte- 
nance, access and access maintenance of man-made 
water sources shall be approved by the code official. 

2. Natural water sources shall have a minimum annual 
water level or flow sufficient to meet the adequate 
water supply needs in accordance with Section 404.5. 
This water level or flow shall not be rendered unusable 
because of freezing. This water source shall have an 
approved draft site with an approved hydrant. Ade- 
quate water flow and rights for access to the water 
source shall be ensured in a form acceptable to the code 
official. 

404.3 Draft sites. Approved draft sites shall be provided at all 
natural water sources intended for use as fire protection for 
compliance with this code. The design, construction, loca- 
tion, access and access maintenance of draft sites shall be 
approved by the code official. 

404.3.1 Access. The draft site shall have emergency vehi- 
cle access from an access road in accordance with Section 
402. 

404.3.2 Pumper access points. The pumper access point 
shall be either an emergency vehicle access area alongside 
a conforming access road or an approved driveway no lon- 
ger than 150 feet (45 720 mm). Pumper access points and 
access driveways shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with all codes and ordinances enforced by this 
jurisdiction. Pumper access points shall not require the 
pumper apparatus to obstruct a road or driveway. 

404.4 Hydrants. All hydrants shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with nationally recognized standards. 
The location and access shall be approved by the code offi- 
cial. 



16 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE' 



WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE AREA REQUIREMENTS 



404.5 Adequate water supply. Adequate water supply shall 
be determined for purposes of initial attack and flame front 
control as follows: 

1. One- and two-family dwellings. The required water 
supply for one- and two-family dwellings having a fire 
flow calculation area that does not exceed 3,600 square 
feet (334 m 2 ) shall be 1 ,000 gallons per minute (63.1 U 
s) for a minimum duration of 30 minutes. The required 
water supply for one- and two-family dwellings having 
a fire flow calculation area in excess of 3,600 square 
feet (334 m 2 ) shall be 1,500 gallons per minute (95 L/s) 
for a minimum duration of 30 minutes. 

Exception: A reduction in required flow rate of 50 
percent, as approved by the code official, is allowed 
when the building is provided with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings. 
The water supply required for buildings other than one- 
and two-family dwellings shall be as approved by the 
code official but shall not be less than 1,500 gallons per 
minute (95 L/s) for a duration of two hours. 

Exception: A reduction in required flow rate of up 
to 75 percent, as approved by the code official, is 
allowed when the building is provided with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. The resulting 
water supply shall not be less than 1,500 gallons per 
minute (94.6 L/s). 

404.6 Fire department. The water supply required by this 
code shall only be approved when a fire department rated 
Class 9 or better in accordance with ISO Commercial Rating 
Service, 1995, is available. 

404.7 Obstructions. Access to all water sources required by 
this code shall be unobstructed at all times. The code official 
shall not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate 
access to water source equipment, fire protection equipment 
or hydrants. 

404.8 Identification. Water sources, draft sites, hydrants and 
fire protection equipment and hydrants shall be clearly identi- 
fied in a manner approved by the code official to identify 
location and to prevent obstruction by parking and other 
obstructions. 

404.9 Testing and maintenance. Water sources, draft sites, 
hydrants and other fire protection equipment required by this 
code shall be subject to periodic tests as required by the code 
official. AH such equipment installed under the provisions of 
this code shall be maintained in an operative condition at all 
times and shall be repaired or replaced where defective. 
Additions, repairs, alterations and servicing of such fire pro- 
tection equipment and resources shall be in accordance with 
approved standards. 

404.10 Reliability. Water supply reliability shall comply 
with Sections 404.10.1 through 404. 10.3. 

404.10.1 Objective. The objective of this section is to 
increase the reliability of water supplies by reducing the 
exposure of vegetative fuels to electrically powered sys- 
tems. 



404.10.2 Clearance of fuel. Defensible space shall be pro- 
vided around water tank structures, water supply pumps 
and pump houses in accordance with Section 603. 

404.10.3 Standby power. Stationary water supply facili- 
ties within the wildland-urban interface area dependent 
on electrical power to meet adequate water supply 
demands shall provide standby power systems in accor- 
dance with Chapter 27 of the International Building Code, 
Section 604 of the International Fire Code and NFPA 70 
to ensure that an uninterrupted water supply is maintained. 
The standby power source shall be capable of providing 
power for a minimum of two hours. 

Exceptions: 



1. 



2. 



When approved by the code official, a standby 
power supply is not required where the primary 
power service to the stationary water supply 
facility is underground. 

A standby power supply is not required where 
the stationary water supply facility serves no 
more than one single-family dwelling. 



SECTION 405 
FIRE PROTECTION PLAN 

405.1 General. When required by the code official, a fire 
protection plan shall be prepared. 

405.2 Content. The plan shall be based upon a site-specific 
wildfire risk assessment that includes considerations of loca- 
tion, topography, aspect, flammable vegetation, climatic con- 
ditions and fire history. The plan shall address water supply, 
access, building ignition and fire-resistance factors, fire pro- 
tection systems and equipment, defensible space and vegeta- 
tion management. 

405.3 Cost. The cost of fire protection plan preparation and 
review shall be the responsibility of the applicant. 

405.4 Plan retention. The fire protection plan shall be 
retained by the code official. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE' 



17 



1 8 2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE' 



CHAPTER 5 

SPECIAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION REGULATIONS 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. Buildings and structures shall be constructed in 
accordance with the International Building Code and this 
code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Accessory structures not exceeding 120 square feet 
(1 1 m 2 ) in floor area when located at least 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from buildings containing habitable 
spaces. 

2. Agricultural buildings at least 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
from buildings containing habitable spaces. 

501.2 Objective. The objective of this chapter is to establish 
minimum standards to locate, design and construct buildings 
and structures or portions thereof for the protection of life and 
property, to resist damage from wildfires, and to mitigate 
building and structure fires from spreading to wildland fuels. 
The minimum standards set forth in this chapter vary with the 
critical fire weather, slope and fuel type to provide increased 
protection, above the requirements set forth in the Interna- 
tional Building Code, from the various levels of hazards. 

501.3 Fire-resistance-rated construction. Where this code 
requires 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, the fire- 
resistance rating of building elements, components or assem- 
blies shall be determined in accordance with the test proce- 
dures set forth in ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263. 



SECTION 502 
FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY 

502.1 General. The fire hazard severity of building sites for 
all buildings hereafter constructed, modified or relocated into 
wildland-urban interface areas shall be established in accor- 
dance with Table 502, 1 . See also Appendix C. 

502.2 Fire hazard severity reduction. The fire hazard sever- 
ity identified in Table 502.1 is allowed to be reduced by 



implementing a vegetation management plan in accordance 
with Appendix B. 



SECTION 503 

IGNITION-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL 

503.1 General. Buildings and structures hereafter con- 
structed, modified or relocated into or within wildland-urban 
interface areas shall meet the construction requirements in 
accordance with Table 503.1. Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3, 
ignition-resistant construction shall be in accordance with 
Sections 504, 505 and 506, respectively. Materials required to 
be ignition-resistant materials shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 503.2. 

503.2 Ignition-resistant building material. Ignition-resis- 
tant building materials shall comply with any one of the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Extended ASTM E 84 testing. Materials that, when 
tested in accordance with the test procedures set forth 
in ASTM E 84 or UL 723, for a test period of 30 min- 
utes, comply with the following: 

1.1. Flame spread. Material shall exhibit a flame 
spread index not exceeding 25 and shall show 
no evidence of progressive combustion follow- 
ing the extended 30-minute test. 

Flame front. Material shall exhibit a flame front 



1.2. 



1.3. 



that does not progress more than 10'/ 2 feet 
(3200 mm) beyond the centerline of the burner 
at any time during the extended 30-minute test. 

Weathering. Ignition-resistant building materi- 
als shall maintain their performance in accor- 
dance with this section under conditions of use. 
Materials shall meet the performance require- 
ments for weathering (including exposure to 
temperature, moisture and ultraviolet radiation) 



TABLE 502.1 
FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY 



FUEL 
MODEL" 


CRITICAL FIRE WEATHER FREQUENCY 


< 1 Day" 


2 to 7 days" 


> 8 days" 


Slope (%) 


Slope (%) 


Slope (%) 


<40 


41-60 


>61 


<40 


41-60 


>61 


<40 


41-60 


>61 


Light fuel 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


H 


Medium fuel 


M 


M 


H 


H 


H 


H 


E 


E 


E 


Heavy fuel 


H 


H 


H 


H 


E 


E 


E 


E 


E 



a. Days per annum. 

b. When required by the code official, fuel classification shall be based on the historical fuel type for the area. 
E = Extreme hazard. 

H = High hazard. 

M = Moderate hazard. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE' 



19 



SPECIAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION REGULATIONS 



contained in the following standards, as appli- 
cable to the materials and the conditions of use: 

1.3.1. Method A "Test Method for Acceler- 
ated Weathering of Fire-Retardant- 
Treated Wood for Fire Testing" in 
ASTM D 2898, for fire-retardant- 
treated wood, wood-plastic composite 
and plastic lumber materials. 

1.3.2. ASTM D 7032 for wood-plastic com- 
posite materials. 

1.3.3. ASTM D 6662 for plastic lumber 
materials. 

1.4. Identification. All materials shall bear identifi- 
cation showing the fire test results. 

2. Noncombustible material. Material that complies with 
the requirements for noncombustible materials in Sec- 
tion 202. 

3. Fire-retardant-treated wood. Fire-retardant-treated 
wood identified for exterior use and meeting the 
requirements of Section 2303.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

4. Fire-retardant-treated wood roof coverings. Roof 
assemblies containing fire-retardant-treated wood shin- 
gles and shakes which comply with the requirements of 
Section 1505.6 of the International Building Code and 
classified as Class A roof assemblies as required in 
Section 1505.2 of the International Building Code. 

SECTION 504 

CLASS 1 IGNITION-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

504.1 General. Class 1 ignition-resistant construction shall 
be in accordance with Sections 504.2 through 504.11. 



504.2 Roof covering. Roofs shall have a Class A roof assem- 
bly. For roof coverings where the profile allows a space 
between the roof covering and roof decking, the space at the 
eave ends shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or 
embers, or have one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-sur- 
faced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D 
3909 installed over the combustible decking. 

504.2.1 Roof valleys. When provided, valley flashings 
shall be not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 galva- 
nized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a 
minimum 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment consist- 
ing of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, 
nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D 3909 
running the full length of the valley. 

504.3 Protection of eaves. Eaves and soffits shall be pro- 
tected on the exposed underside by ignition-resistant materi- 
als or by materials approved for a minimum of 1-hour fire- 
resistance-rated construction, 2-inch (51 mm) nominal 
dimension lumber, or l-inch (25.4 mm) nominal fire-retar- 
dant-treated lumber or 3 / 4 -inch (19 mm) nominal fire-retar- 
dant-treated plywood, identified for exterior use and meeting 
the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the International 
Building Code. Fascias are required and shall be protected on 
the backside by ignition -resistant materials or by materials 
approved for a minimum of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction or 2-inch (51 mm) nominal dimension lumber. 

504.4 Gutters and downspouts. Gutters and downspouts 
shall be constructed of noncombustible material. Gutters shall 
be provided with an approved means to prevent the accumu- 
lation of leaves and debris in the gutter. 

504.5 Exterior walls. Exterior walls of buildings or struc- 
tures shall be constructed with one of the following methods: 

1 . Materials approved for a minimum of 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction on the exterior side. 



TABLE 503.1 
IGNITION-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 3 



DEFENSIBLE 
SPACE 


FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY 


Moderate Hazard 


High Hazard 


Extreme Hazard 


Water Supply" 


Water Supply" 


Water Supply" 


Conforming" 


Nonconforming 6 


Conforming" 


Nonconforming 9 


Conforming" 


Nonconforming 6 


Nonconforming 


IR2 


IR1 


IR1 


IR1 
N.C. 


IRI 

N.C. 


Not Permitted 


Conforming 


IR3 


IR2 


IR2 


IRI 


IR 1 


IRI 

N.C. 


1.5 x Conforming 


Not Required 


IR3 


IR3 


IR2 


IR2 


IRI 



a. Access shall be in accordance with Section 402. 

b. Subdivisions shall have a conforming water supply in accordance with Section 402.1. 
IR 1 = Ignition-resistant construction in accordance with Section 504. 

IR 2 = Ignition-resistant construction in accordance with Section 505. 

IR 3 = Ignition-resistant construction in accordance with Section 506. 

N.C. = Exterior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1-hour and the exterior surfaces of such walls shall be noncombustible. Usage of log 

wall construction is allowed. 

c. Conformance based on Section 603. 

d. Conformance based on Section 404. 

e. A nonconforming water supply is any water system or source that does not comply with Section 404, including situations where there is no water supply for 
structure protection or fire suppression. 



20 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 



SPECIAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION REGULATIONS 



2. Approved noncombustible materials. 

3. Heavy timber or log wall construction. 

4. Fire-retardant-treated wood on the exterior side. The 
fire-retardant-treated wood shall be labeled for exterior 
use and meet the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the 
International Building Code. 

5. Ignition-resistant materials on the exterior side. 

Such material shall extend from the top of the foundation 
to the underside of the roof sheathing. 

504.6 Unenclosed underfloor protection. Buildings or 
structures shall have all underfloor areas enclosed to the 
ground with exterior walls in accordance with Section 504.5. 

Exception: Complete enclosure may be omitted where the 
underside of all exposed floors and all exposed structural 
columns, beams and supporting walls are protected as 
required for exterior 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion or heavy timber construction or fire-retardant-treated 
wood. The fire-retardant-treated wood shall be labeled for 
exterior use and meet the requirements of Section 2303.2 
of the International Building Code. 

504.7 Appendages and projections. Unenclosed accessory 
structures attached to buildings with habitable spaces and 
projections, such as decks, shall be a minimum of 1-hour fire 
resistance-rated construction, heavy timber construction or 
constructed of one of the following: 

1. Approved noncombustible materials; 

2. Fire-retardant-treated wood identified for exterior use 
and meeting the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the 
International Building Code; or 

3. Ignition-resistant building materials in accordance with 
Section 503.2. 

504.7.1 Underfloor areas. When the attached structure is 
located and constructed so that the structure or any portion 
thereof projects over a descending slope surface greater 
than 10 percent, the area below the structure shall have all 
underfloor areas enclosed to within 6 inches (152 mm) of 
the ground, with exterior wall construction in accordance 
with Section 504.5. 

504.8 Exterior glazing. Exterior windows, window walls 
and glazed doors, windows within exterior doors, and sky- 
lights shall be tempered glass, multilayered glazed panels, 
glass block or have a fire protection rating of not less than 20 
minutes. 

504.9 Exterior doors. Exterior doors shall be approved non- 
combustible construction, solid core wood not less than 1 V 4 
inches thick (45 mm), or have a fire protection rating of not 
less than 20 minutes. Windows within doors and glazed doors 
shall be in accordance with Section 504.8. 

Exception: Vehicle access doors. 

504.10 Vents. Attic ventilation openings, foundation or 
underfloor vents, or other ventilation openings in vertical 
exterior walls and vents through roofs shall not exceed 144 
square inches (0.0929 m 2 ) each. Such vents shall be covered 
with noncombustible corrosion-resistant mesh with openings 
not to exceed 7 4 inch (6.4 mm), or shall be designed and 



approved to prevent flame or ember penetration into the 
structure. 

504.10.1 Vent locations. Attic ventilation openings shall 
not be located in soffits, in eave overhangs, between raf- 
ters at eaves, or in other overhang areas. Gable end and 
dormer vents shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
from lot lines. Underfloor ventilation openings shall be § 
located as close to grade as practical. 

504.11 Detached accessory structures. Detached accessory 
structures located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from a build- 
ing containing habitable space shall have exterior walls con- 
structed with materials approved for a minimum of 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction, heavy timber, log wall con- 
struction, or constructed with approved noncombustible 
materials or fire-retardant-treated wood on the exterior side. 
The fire-retardant-treated wood shall be labeled for exterior 
use and meet the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

504.11.1 Underfloor areas. When the detached structure 
is located and constructed so that the structure or any por- 
tion thereof projects over a descending slope surface 
greater than 10 percent, the area below the structure shall 
have all underfloor areas enclosed to within 6 inches (152 
mm) of the ground, with exterior wall construction in 
accordance with Section 504.5 or underfloor protection in 
accordance with Section 504.6. 

Exception: The enclosure shall not be required where 
the underside of all exposed floors and all exposed 
structural columns, beams and supporting walls are 
protected as required for exterior 1-hour fire-resi stance- 
rated construction or heavy-timber construction or fire- 
retardant-treated wood on the exterior side. The fire- 
retardant-treated wood shall be labeled for exterior use 
and meet the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the 
International Building Code. 



SECTION 505 
CLASS 2 IGNITION-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

505.1 General. Class 2 ignition-resistant construction shall 
be in accordance with Sections 505.2 through 505.1 1. 

505.2 Roof covering. Roofs shall have at least a Class B roof 
assembly or an approved noncombustible roof covering. For 
roof coverings where the profile allows a space between the 
roof covering and roof decking, the space at the eave ends 
shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or embers, or 
have one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, non- 
perforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D 3909 installed 
over the combustible decking. 

505.2.1 Roof valleys. When provided, valley flashings 
shall be not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 galva- 
nized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a 
minimum 36-inch- wide (914 mm) underlay ment consist- 
ing of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, 
nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D 3909 
running the full length of the valley. 

505.3 Protection of eaves. Combustible eaves, fascias and 
soffits shall be enclosed with solid materials with a minimum 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 6 



21 



SPECIAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION REGULATIONS 



thickness of 3 / 4 inch (19 mm). No exposed rafter tails shall be 
permitted unless constructed of heavy timber materials. 

505.4 Gutters and downspouts. Gutters and downspouts 
shall be constructed of noncombustible material. Gutters shall 
be provided with an approved means to prevent the accumu- 
lation of leaves and debris in the gutter. 

505.5 Exterior walls. Exterior walls of buildings or struc- 
tures shall be constructed with one of the following methods: 

1. Materials approved for a minimum of 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction on the exterior side. 

2. Approved noncombustible materials. 

3. Heavy timber or log wall construction. 

4. Fire-retardant- treated wood on the exterior side. The 
fire-retard ant-treated wood shall be labeled for exterior 
use and meet the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the 
International Building Code. 

5. Ignition-resistant materials on the exterior side. 

Such material shall extend from the top of the foundation 
to the underside of the roof sheathing. 

505.6 Unenclosed underfloor protection. Buildings or 
structures shall have all underfloor areas enclosed to the 
ground, with exterior walls in accordance with Section 505.5. 

Exception: Complete enclosure shall not be required 
where the underside of all exposed floors and all exposed 
structural columns, beams and supporting walls are pro- 
tected as required for exterior 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction or heavy timber construction or fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood. The fire-retardant-treated wood shall 
be labeled for exterior use and meet the requirements of 
Section 2303.2 of the International Building Code. 

505.7 Appendages and projections. Unenclosed accessory 
structures attached to buildings with habitable spaces and 
projections, such as decks, shall be a minimum of 1 -hour fire- 
resistance-rated construction, heavy timber construction or 
constructed of one of the following: 

1. Approved noncombustible materials; 

2. Fire-retardant-treated wood identified for exterior use 
and meeting the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the 
International Building Code; or 

3. Ignition-resistant building materials in accordance with 
Section 503.2. 

505.7.1 Underfloor areas. When the attached structure is 
located and constructed so that the structure or any portion 
thereof projects over a descending slope surface greater 
than 10 percent, the area below the structure shall have all 
underfloor areas enclosed to within 6 inches (152 mm) of 
the ground, with exterior wall construction in accordance 
with Section 505.5. 

505.8 Exterior glazing. Exterior windows, window walls 
and glazed doors, windows within exterior doors, and sky- 
lights shall be tempered glass, multilayered glazed panels, 
glass block or have a fire-protection rating of not less than 20 
minutes. 



505.9 Exterior doors. Exterior doors shall be approved non- 
combustible construction, solid core wood not less than l 3 / 4 - 
inches thick (45 mm), or have a fire protection rating of not 
less than 20 minutes. Windows within doors and glazed doors 
shall be in accordance with Section 505.8. 

Exception: Vehicle access doors. 

505.10 Vents. Attic ventilation openings, foundation or 
underfloor vents or other ventilation openings in vertical 
exterior walls and vents through roofs shall not exceed 144 
square inches (0.0929 m 2 ) each. Such vents shall be covered 
with noncombustible corrosion-resistant mesh with openings 
not to exceed V 4 inch (6.4 mm) or shall be designed and 
approved to prevent flame or ember penetration into the 
structure. 

505.10.1 Vent locations. Attic ventilation openings shall 
not be located in soffits, in eave overhangs, between raf- 
ters at eaves, or in other overhang areas. Gable end and 
dormer vents shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
from lot lines. Underfloor ventilation openings shall be | 
located as close to grade as practical. 

505.11 Detached accessory structures. Detached accessory 
structures located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from a build- 
ing containing habitable space shall have exterior walls con- 
structed with materials approved for a minimum of 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction, heavy timber, log wall con- 
struction, or constructed with approved noncombustible 
materials or fire-retardant-treated wood on the exterior side. 
The fire-retardant-treated wood shall be labeled for exterior 
use and meet the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the Inter- 
national. Building Code. 

505.11.1 Underfloor areas. When the detached accessory 
structure is located and constructed so that the structure or 
any portion thereof projects over a descending slope sur- 
face greater than 10 percent, the area below the structure 
shall have all underfloor areas enclosed to within 6 inches 
(152 mm) of the ground, with exterior wall construction in 
accordance with Section 505.5 or underfloor protection in 
accordance with Section 505.6. 

Exception: The enclosure shall not be required where 
the underside of all exposed floors and all exposed 
structural columns, beams and supporting walls are 
protected as required for exterior 1-hour fire-resistance- 
rated construction or heavy-timber construction or fire- 
retardant-treated wood on the exterior side. The fire- 
retardant-treated wood shall be labeled for exterior use 
and meet the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the 
International Building Code. 



SECTION 506 
CLASS 3 IGNITION-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

506.1 General. Class 3 ignition-resistant construction shall 
be in accordance with Sections 506.2 through 506.4. 

506.2 Roof covering. Roofs shall have at least a Class C roof 
assembly or an approved noncombustible roof covering. For 
roof coverings where the profile allows a space between the 
roof covering and roof decking, the space at the eave ends 
shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or embers, or 



22 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 



SPECIAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION REGULATIONS 



have one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral -surfaced, non- 
perforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D 3909 installed 
over the combustible decking. 

506.2.1 Root' valleys. Where provided, valley flashings 
shall be not less than 0.019-inch (0.44 mm) (No. 26 galva- 
nized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a 
minimum 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment consist- 
ing of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, 
nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D 3909 
running the full length of the valley. 

506.3 Unenclosed underfloor protection. Buildings or 
structures shall have all underfloor areas enclosed to the 
ground with exterior walls. 

Exception: Complete enclosure may be omitted where the 
underside of all exposed floors and all exposed structural 
columns, beams and supporting walls are protected as 
required for exterior 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion or heavy timber construction. 

506.4 Gutters and downspouts. Gutters and downspouts 
shall be constructed of noncombustible material. Gutters shall 
be provided with an approved means to prevent the accumu- 
lation of leaves and debris in the gutter. 



SECTION 507 
REPLACEMENT OR REPAIR OF ROOF COVERINGS 

507.1 General. The roof covering on buildings or structures 
in existence prior to the adoption of this code that are 
replaced or have 25 percent or more replaced in a 12-month 
period shall be replaced with a roof covering required for new 
construction based on the type of ignition-resistant construc- 
tion specified in accordance with Section 503. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 



23 



24 2012 INTERNATIONAL WiLDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

FSRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter establish general 
requirements for new and existing buildings, structures and 
premises located within wildland-urban interface areas. 

601.2 Objective. The objective of this chapter is to establish 
minimum requirements to mitigate the risk to life and prop- 
erty from wildland fire exposures, exposures from adjacent 
structures and to mitigate structure fires from spreading to 
wildland fuels. 



SECTION 602 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

602.1 General. An approved automatic sprinkler system 
shall be installed in all occupancies in new buildings required 
to meet the requirements for Class 1 ignition-resistant con- 
struction in Chapter 5. The installation of the automatic sprin- 
kler systems shall be in accordance with nationally 
recognized standards. 



SECTION 603 
DEFENSIBLE SPACE 

603.1 Objective. Provisions of this section are intended to 
modify the fuel load in areas adjacent to structures to create a 
defensible space. 

603.2 Fuel modification. Buildings or structures, constructed 
in compliance with the conforming defensible space category 
of Table 503.1, shall comply with the fuel modification dis- 



tances contained in Table 603.2. For all other purposes the 
fuel modification distance shall not be less than 30 feet (9144 
mm) or to the lot line, whichever is less. Distances specified 
in Table 603.2 shall be measured on a horizontal plane from 
the perimeter or projection of the building or structure as 
shown in Figure 603.2. Distances specified in Table 603.2 are 
allowed to be increased by the code official because of a site- 
specific analysis based on local conditions and the fire pro- 
tection plan. 

TABLE 603.2 
REQUIRED DEFENSIBLE SPACE 



WILDLAND-URBAN 
INTERFACE AREA 


FUEL MODIFICATION DISTANCE 
(feet)" 


Moderate hazard 


30 


High hazard 


50 


Extreme hazard 


100 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Distances are allowed to be increased due to site-specific analysis based 
on local conditions and the fire protection plan. 

603.2.1 Responsible party. Persons owning, leasing, con- 
trolling, operating or maintaining buildings or structures 
requiring defensible spaces are responsible for modifying 
or removing nonfire-resistive vegetation on the property 
owned, leased or controlled by said person. 

603.2.2 Trees. Trees are allowed within the defensible 
space, provided the horizontal distance between crowns of 
adjacent trees and crowns of trees and structures, overhead 
electrical facilities or unmodified fuel is not less than 10 
feet (3048 mm). 




Unmodified 
/\ fuel 




Modified 
fuel 



Unmodified 
fuel 



FIGURE 603.2 
MEASUREMENTS OF FUEL MODIFICATION DISTANCE 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



25 



FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS 



603.2.3 Groundcover. Deadwood and litter shall be regu- 
larly removed from trees. Where ornamental vegetative 
fuels or cultivated ground cover, such as green grass, ivy, 
succulents or similar plants are used as ground cover, they 
are allowed to be within the designated defensible space, 
provided they do not form a means of transmitting fire 
from the native growth to any structure. 



SECTION 604 
MAINTENANCE OF DEFENSIBLE SPACE 

604.1 General. Defensible spaces required by Section 603 
shall be maintained in accordance with Section 604. 

604.2 Modified area. Nonfire-resistive vegetation or growth 
shall be kept clear of buildings or structures, in accordance 
with Section 603, in such a manner as to provide a clear area 
for fire suppression operations. 

604.3 Responsibility. Persons owning, leasing, controlling, 
operating or maintaining buildings or structures are responsi- 
ble for maintenance of defensible spaces. Maintenance of the 
defensible space shall include modifying or removing non- 
fire-resistive vegetation and keeping leaves, needles and 
other dead vegetative material regularly removed from roofs 
of buildings and structures. 

604.4 Trees. Tree crowns extending to within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of any structure shall be pruned to maintain a minimum 
horizontal clearance of 10 feet (3048 mm). Tree crowns 
within the defensible space shall be pruned to remove limbs 
located less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the ground surface 
adjacent to the trees. 

604.4.1 Chimney clearance. Portions of tree crowns that 
extend to within 1 feet (3048 mm) of the outlet of a chim- 
ney shall be pruned to maintain a minimum horizontal 
clearance of 10 feet (3048 mm). 

604.4.2 Deadwood removed. Deadwood and litter shall 
be regularly removed from trees. 



606.2 Location of containers or tanks. LP-gas containers or 
tanks shall be located within the defensible space in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 



SECTION 607 

STORAGE OF FIREWOOD AND COMBUSTIBLE 

MATERIALS 

607.1 General. Firewood and combustible material shall not 
be stored in unenclosed spaces beneath buildings or struc- 
tures, or on decks or under eaves, canopies or other projec- 
tions or overhangs. When required by the code official, 
storage of firewood and combustible material stored in the 
defensible space shall be located a minimum of 20 feet (6096 
mm) from structures and separated from the crown of trees by 
a minimum horizontal distance of 15 feet (4572 mm). 

607.2 Storage for off-site use. Firewood and combustible 
materials not for consumption on the premises shall be stored 
so as to not pose a hazard. See Appendix A. 



SECTION 605 
SPARK ARRESTERS 

605.1 General. Chimneys serving fireplaces, barbecues, 
incinerators or decorative heating appliances in which solid 
or liquid fuel is used, shall be provided with a spark arrester. 
Spark arresters shall be constructed of woven or welded wire 
screening of 12 USA standard gage wire (0.1046 inch) (2.66 
mm) having openings not exceeding V 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

605.2 Net free area. The net free area of the spark arrester 
shall not be less than four times the net free area of the outlet 
of the chimney. 



SECTION 606 
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS INSTALLATIONS 

606.1 General. The storage of liquefied petroleum gas (LP- 
gas) and the installation and maintenance of pertinent equip- 
ment shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code 
or, in the absence thereof, recognized standards. 



26 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 



CHAPTER 7 

REFERENCED STANDARDS 



This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the 
promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this 
document that reference the standard. 



ASTM International 

100 Barr Harbor Drive 

West Conshohocken, PA 1 9428-2959 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



D 2898— 2008e01 

D 3201— 08a 

D3909— 97b(2004el) 

D 6662—09 
D 7032—08 

E 84—09 
E 119— 08a 
E 136—09 



Standard 
reference 
number 



IBC— 12 

IFC— 12 

IPMC— 12 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Standard Test Methods for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated 

Wood for Fire Testing 503.2 

Standard Test Methods for Hygroscopic Properties of Fire-Retardant Wood 

and Wood-based Products 503.2 

Standard Specification for Asphalt Roll Roofing (Glass Felt) Surfaced with 

Mineral Granules 504.2, 504.2.1, 505.2, 505.2.1, 506.2, 506.2.1 

Standard Specification for Polyolefin-based Plastic Lumber Decking Boards 503.2 

Standard Specification for Establishing Performance Ratings for Wood-plastic 

Composite Deck Boards and Guardrail Systems (Guards or Handrails) 503.2 

Test Method for Surface-Burning Characteristics of Building Materials 202, 503.2 

Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials 501 .3 

Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C 202 



International Code Council, Inc. 
500 New Jersey Ave, NW 
6th Floor 

Washington, DC 20001 

" Referenced 

in code 
Title section number 

International Building Code® .". ~ 10373, 107.3, 108.37202, 501.1, 501.2, 503.2, 

504.3, 504.5, 504.6, 504.7, 504. 1 1 , 505.5, 505.6, 
505.7,505.11, A107.5 

International Fire Code fe 102.6, 107.3, 202,402.1.1,402.2.1,403.2, 

403.2.3, 606.1, 606.2, A104.6, A105.1, A107.5 
International Property Maintenance Code® 102.6 



National Fire Protection Association 
Batterymarch Park 
Quincy, MA 02169-7471 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



NFPA 70- 



National Electrical Code 404. 10.3, A107.5 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



27 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



Underwriters Laboratories. Inc. 
333 Pfingsten Road 
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096 



Standard Referenced 

reference in code 

number ^ section number 

263 — 2003 Standard for Fire Test of Building Construction and Materials 501.3 

723 — 2008 Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building 

Materials 202, 503.2 



28 2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



APPENDIX A 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 



SECTION A101 

GENERAL 

A101.1 Scope. The provisions of this appendix establish gen- 
eral requirements applicable to new and existing properties 
located within wildland- urban interface areas. 

A101.2 Objective. The objective of this appendix is to pro- 
vide necessary fire-protection measures to reduce the threat 
of wildfire in a wildland-urban interface area and improve 
the capability of controlling such fires. 



SECTION A1 02 
VEGETATION CONTROL 

A102.1 General. Vegetation control shall comply with Sec- 
tions A 102.2 through A102.4. 

A102.2 Clearance of brush or vegetative growth from 
roadways. The code official is authorized to require areas 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) on each side of portions of fire 
apparatus access roads and driveways to be cleared of non- 
fire-resistive vegetation growth. 

Exception: Single specimens of trees, ornamental vegeta- 
tive fuels or cultivated ground cover, such as green grass, 
ivy, succulents or similar plants used as ground cover, pro- 
vided they do not form a means of readily transmitting 
fire. 

A102.3 Clearance of brush and vegetative growth from 
electrical transmission and distribution lines. Clearance of 
brush and vegetative growth from electrical transmission and 
distribution lines shall be in accordance with Sections 
A102.3.1 through A102.3.2.3. 

Exception: Sections A 102.3.1 through A102.3.2.3 do not 
authorize persons not having legal right of entry to enter 
on or damage the property of others without consent of the 
owner. 

A102.3.1 Support clearance. Persons owning, control- 
ling, operating or maintaining electrical transmission or 
distribution lines shall have an approved program in place 
that identifies poles or towers with equipment and hard- 
ware types that have a history of becoming an ignition 
source, and provides a combustible free space consisting 
of a clearing of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in each 
direction from the outer circumference of such pole or 
tower during such periods of time as designated by the 
code official. 

Exception: Lines used exclusively as telephone, tele- 
graph, messenger call, alarm transmission or other lines 
classed as communication circuits by a public utility. 

A 102.3.2 Electrical distribution and transmission line 
clearances. Clearances between vegetation and electrical 



lines shall be in accordance with Sections A102.3.2.1 
through Al 02.3.2.3. 

A 102.3.2.1 Trimming clearance. At the time of trim- 
ming, clearances not less than those established by 
Table A 102.3.2.1 shall be provided. The radial clear- 
ances shown below are minimum clearances that shall 
be established, at time of trimming, between the vege- 
tation and the energized conductors and associated live 
parts. 

Exception: The code official is authorized to estab- 
lish minimum clearances different than those speci- 
fied by Table A102.3.2.1 when evidence 
substantiating such other clearances is submitted to 
and approved by the code official. 

TABLE A102.3.2.1 

MINIMUM CLEARANCES BETWEEN VEGETATION AND 

ELECTRICAL LINES AT TIME OF TRIMMING 



LINE VOLTAGE 


MINIMUM RADIAL CLEARANCE 
FROM CONDUCTOR (feet) 


2,400 - 72.000 


4 


72,001 -110,000 


6 


110,001-300,000 


10 


300,001 or more 


15 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

A102.3.2.2 Minimum clearance to be maintained. 
Clearances not less than those established by Table 
A102.3.2.2 shall be maintained during such periods of 
time as designated by the code official. The site-spe- 
cific clearance achieved, at time of pruning, shall vary 
based on species growth rates, the utility company-spe- 
cific trim cycle, the potential line sway due to wind, 
line sag due to electrical loading and ambient tempera- 
ture and the tree's location in proximity to the high 
voltage lines. 

Exception: The code official is authorized to estab- 
lish minimum clearances different than those speci- 
fied by Table A102.3.2.2 when evidence 
substantiating such other clearances is submitted to 
and approved by the code official. 

TABLE A1 02.3.2.2 

MINIMUM CLEARANCES BETWEEN VEGETATION AND 

ELECTRICAL LINES TO BE MAINTAINED 



LINE VOLTAGE 


MINIMUM CLEARANCE (inches) 


750 - 35,000 


6 


35,001 - 60,000 


12 


60,001 - 115,000 


19 


115,001-230,000 


30.5 


230,001 - 500,000 


115 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE" 



29 



APPENDIX A 



A102.3.2.3 Electrical power line emergencies. Dur- 
ing emergencies, the utility shall perform the required 
work to the extent necessary to clear the hazard. An 
emergency can include situations such as trees falling 
into power lines, or trees in violation of Table 
A102.3.2.2. 

A102.4 Correction of condition. The code official is autho- 
rized to give notice to the owner of the property on which 
conditions regulated by Section A 102 exist to correct such 
conditions. If the owner fails to correct such conditions, the 
legislative body of the jurisdiction is authorized to cause the 
same to be done and make the expense of such correction a 
lien on the property where such condition exists. 



SECTION A1 03 
ACCESS RESTRICTIONS 

A 1 03. 1 Restricted entry to public lands. The code official 
is authorized to determine and publicly announce when wild- 
land-urban interface areas shall be closed to entry and when 
such areas shall again be opened to entry. Entry on and occu- 
pation of wildland-urban interface areas, except public road- 
ways, inhabited areas or established trails and campsites that 
have not been closed during such time when the wildland- 
urban interface area is closed to entry, is prohibited. 

Exceptions: 

1. Residents and owners of private property within 
wildland-urban interface areas and their invitees 
and guests going to or being on their lands. 

2. Entry, in the course of duty, by peace or police offi- 
cers, and other duly authorized public officers, 
members of a fire department and members of the 
Wildland Firefighting Service. 

A103.2 Trespassing on posted private property. When the 
code official determines that a specific area within a wild- 
land-urban interface area presents an exceptional and con- 
tinuing fire danger because of the density of natural growth, 
difficulty of terrain, proximity to structures or accessibility to 
the public, such areas shall be restricted or closed until 
changed conditions warrant termination of such restriction or 
closure. Such areas shall be posted in accordance with Sec- 
tion Al 03.2.1. 

A103.2.1 Signs. Approved signs prohibiting entry by 
unauthorized persons and referring to this code shall be 
placed on every closed area. 

A103.2.2 Trespassing. Entering and remaining within 
areas closed and posted is prohibited. 

Exception: Owners and occupiers of private or public 
property within closed and posted areas; their guests or 
invitees; authorized persons engaged in the operation 
and maintenance of necessary utilities such as electrical 
power, gas, telephone, water and sewer; and local, state 
and federal public officers and their authorized agents 
acting in the course of duty. 

A103.3 Use of fire roads and defensible space. Motorcy- 
cles, motor scooters and motor vehicles shall not be driven or 
parked on, and trespassing is prohibited on, fire roads or 



defensible space beyond the point where travel is restricted 
by a cable, gate or sign, without the permission of the prop- 
erty owners. Vehicles shall not be parked in a manner that 
obstructs the entrance to a fire road or defensible space. 

Exception: Public officers acting within their scope of 
duty. 

A103.3.1 Obstructions. Radio and television aerials, guy 
wires thereto, and other obstructions shall not be installed 
or maintained on fire roads or defensible spaces, unless 
located 16 feet (4877 mm) or more above such fire road or 
defensible space. 

A103.4 Use of motorcycles, motor scooters, ultralight air- 
craft and motor vehicles. Motorcycles, motor scooters, 
ultralight aircraft and motor vehicles shall not be operated 
within wildland-urban interface areas, without a permit by 
the code official, except on clearly established public or pri- 
vate roads. Permission from the property owner shall be pre- 
sented when requesting a permit. 

A103.5 Tampering with locks, barricades, signs and 
address markers. Locks, barricades, seals, cables, signs and 
address markers installed within wildland-urban interface 
areas, by or under the control of the code official, shall not be 
tampered with, mutilated, destroyed or removed. 

A103.5.1 Gates, doors, barriers and locks. Gates, doors, 
barriers and locks installed by or under the control of the 
code official shall not be unlocked. 



SECTION A1 04 
IGNITION SOURCE CONTROL 

A104.1 General. Ignition sources shall be controlled in 
accordance with Sections A104.2 through A104.10. 

A 104.2 Objective. Regulations in this section are intended to 
provide the minimum requirements to prevent the occurrence 
of wildfires. 

A 104.3 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance 
between ignition sources and grass, brush or other combusti- 
ble materials shall be maintained a minimum of 30 feet (9144 
mm). 

A104.4 Smoking. When required by the code official, signs 
shall be posted stating NO SMOKING. No person shall 
smoke within 15 feet (4572 mm) of combustible materials or 
nonfire-resistive vegetation. 

Exception: Places of habitation or in the boundaries of 
established smoking areas or campsites as designated by 
the code official. 

A104.5 Equipment and devices generating heat, sparks or 
open flames. Equipment and devices generating heat, sparks 
or open flames capable of igniting nearby combustibles shall 
not be used in wildland-urban intetface areas without a per- 
mit from the code official. 

Exception: Use of approved equipment within inhabitated 
premises or designated campsites that are a minimum of 
30 feet (9144 mm) from grass-, grain-, brush- or forest- 
covered areas. 



30 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 4 



APPENDIX A 



A104.6 Fireworks. Fireworks shall not be used or possessed 
in wildland-urban interface areas. 

Exception: Fireworks allowed by the code official under 
permit in accordance with the International Fire Code 
when not prohibited by applicable local or state laws, ordi- 
nances and regulations. 

A104.6.1 Authority to seize. The code official is autho- 
rized to seize, take, remove or cause to be removed fire- 
works in violation of this section. 

A104.7 Outdoor fires. Outdoor fires in wildland-urban inter- 
face areas shall comply with Sections A 104.7.1 through 
A 104.7.3. 

A 104.7.1 General. No person shall build, ignite or main- 
tain any outdoor fire of any kind for any purpose in or on 
any wildland-urban interface area, except by the authority 
of a written permit from the code official. 

Exception: Outdoor fires within inhabited premises or 
designated campsites where such fires are in a perma- 
nent barbecue, portable barbecue, outdoor fireplace, 
incinerator or grill and are a minimum of 30 feet (9144 
mm) from any combustible material or nonfire-resistive 
vegetation. 

A 104.7.2 Permits. Permits shall incorporate such terms 
and conditions that will reasonably safeguard public safety 
and property. Outdoor fires shall not be built, ignited or 
maintained in or on hazardous fire areas under the follow- 
ing conditions: 

1 . When high winds are blowing, 

2. When a person 17 years old or over is not present at 
all times to watch and tend such fire, or 

3. When a public announcement is made that open 
burning is prohibited. 

A104.7.3 Restrictions. No person shall use a permanent 
barbecue, portable barbecue, outdoor fireplace or grill for 
the disposal of rubbish, trash or combustible waste mate- 
rial. 

A104.8 Incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, permanent bar- 
becues and grills. Incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, perma- 
nent barbecues and grills shall not be built, installed or 
maintained in wildland-urban interface areas without 
approval of the code official. 

A104.8.1 Maintenance. Incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, 
permanent barbecues and grills shall be maintained in 
good repair and in a safe condition at all times. Openings 
in such appliances shall be provided with an approved 
spark arrestor, screen or door. 

Exception: When approved by the code official, 
unprotected openings in barbecues and grills necessary 
for proper functioning. 

A104.9 Reckless behavior. The code official is authorized to 
stop any actions of a person or persons if the official deter- 
mines that the action is reckless and could result in an igni- 
tion of fire or spread of fire. 

A104.10 Planting vegetation under or adjacent to ener- 
gized electrical lines. Vegetation that, at maturity, would 



grow to within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the energized conduc- 
tors shall not be planted under or adjacent to energized power 
lines. 



SECTION A1 05 
CONTROL OF STORAGE 

A105.1 General. In addition to the requirements of the Inter- 
national Fire Code, storage and use of the materials shall be 
in accordance with Sections A105.2 through A 105.4.2. 

A105.2 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials in excess 
of 10 gallons (37.8 L) of liquid, 200 cubic feet (5.66 m 3 ) of 
gas, or 10 pounds (4.54 kg) of solids require a permit and 
shall comply with nationally recognized standards for storage 
and use. 

A105.3 Explosives. Explosives shall not be possessed, kept, 
stored, sold, offered for sale, given away, used, discharged, 
transported or disposed of within wildland-urban interface 
areas, except by permit from the code official. 

A105.4 Combustible materials. Outside storage of combus- 
tible materials such as, but not limited to, wood, rubber tires, 
building materials or paper products shall comply with the 
other applicable sections of this code and this section. 

A105.4.1 Individual piles. Individual piles shall not 
exceed 5,000 square feet (465 m 2 ) of contiguous area. 
Piles shall not exceed 50,000 cubic feet (1416 m 3 ) in vol- 
ume or 10 feet (3048 mm) in height. 

A105.4.2 Separation. A clear space of at least 40 feet (12 
192 mm) shall be provided between piles. The clear space 
shall not contain combustible material or nonfire-resistive 
vegetation. 



SECTION A1 06 
DUMPING 

A106.1 Waste material. Waste material shall not be placed, 
deposited or dumped in wildland-urban interface areas, or in, 
on or along trails, roadways or highways or against structures 
in wildland-urban interface areas. 

Exception: Approved public and approved private dump- 
ing areas. 

A106.2 Ashes and coals. Ashes and coals shall not be placed, 
deposited or dumped in or on wildland-urban interface areas. 

Exceptions: 

1. In the hearth of an established fire pit, camp stove or 
fireplace. 

2. In a noncombustible container with a tightfitting lid, 
which is kept or maintained in a safe location not 
less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from nonfire-resistive 
vegetation or structures. 

3. Where such ashes or coals are buried and covered 
with 1 foot (305 mm) of mineral earth not less than 
25 feet (7620 mm) from nonfire-resistive vegetation 
or structures. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE ! 



31 



APPENDIX A 



SECTION A1 07 
PROTECTION OF PUMPS AND WATER STORAGE 

FACILITIES 

A107.1 General. The reliability of the water supply shall be 
in accordance with Sections A107.2 through A107.5. 

A107.2 Objective. The intent of this section is to increase the 
reliability of water storage and pumping facilities and to pro- 
tect such systems against loss from intrusion by fire. 

A 107.3 Fuel modification area. Water storage and pumping 
facilities shall be provided with a defensible space of not less 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) clear of nonfire-resistive vegetation 
or growth around and adjacent to such facilities. 

Persons owning, controlling, operating or maintaining 
water storage and pumping systems requiring this defensible 
space are responsible for clearing and removing nonfire- 
resistive vegetation and maintaining the defensible space on 
the property owned, leased or controlled by said person. 

A 107.4 Trees. Portions of trees that extend to within 30 feet 
(9144 mm) of combustible portions of water storage and 
pumping facilities shall be removed. 

A107.5 Protection of electrical power supplies. When elec- 
trical pumps are used to provide the required water supply, 
such pumps shall be connected to a standby power source to 
automatically maintain electrical power in the event of power 
loss. The standby power source shall be capable of providing 
power for a minimum of two hours in accordance with Chap- 
ter 27 of the International Building Code, Section 604 of the 
International Fire Code and NFPA 70. 

Exception: A standby power source is not required where 
the primary power service to pumps are underground as 
approved by the code official. 



SECTION A1 09 
REFERENCED STANDARDS 



IBC — 2012 International Building Code 

IFC— 2012 Internationa] Fire Code 

NFPA 70— 1 1 National Electri cal Code 



A107.5 
A104.6, 
A107.5 
A107.5 



A105.1, 



SECTION A1 08 
LAND USE LIMITATIONS 

A 108.1 General. Temporary fairs, carnivals, public exhibi- 
tions and similar uses must comply with all other provisions 
of this code in addition to enhanced ingress and egress 
requirements. 

A 108.2 Objective. The increased public use of land or struc- 
tures in wildland-urban interface areas also increases the 
potential threat to life safety. The provisions of this section 
are intended to reduce that threat. 

A 108.3 Permits. Temporary fairs, carnivals, public exhibi- 
tions or similar uses shall not be allowed in a designated wild- 
land-urban interface area, except by permit from the code 
official. 

Permits shall incorporate such terms and conditions that 
will reasonably safeguard public safety and property. 

A108.4 Access roadways. In addition to the requirements in 
Section 403, access roadways shall be a minimum of 24 feet 
(7315 mm) wide and posted NO PARKING. Two access 
roadways shall be provided to serve the permitted use area. 

When required by the code official to facilitate emergency 
operations, approved emergency vehicle operating areas shall 
be provided. 



32 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 



APPENDIX B 

VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PLAN 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

SECTION B101 
GENERAL 

B101.1 Scope. Vegetation management plans shall be sub- 
mitted to the code official for review and approval as part of 
the plans required for a permit. 

B101.2 Plan content. Vegetation management plans shall 
describe all actions that will be taken to prevent a fire from 
being carried toward or away from the building. A vegetation 
management plan shall include at least the following infor- 
mation: 

1 . A copy of the site plan. 

2. Methods and timetables for controlling, changing or 
modifying areas on the property. Elements of the plan 
shall include removal of slash, snags, vegetation that 
may grow into overhead electrical lines, other ground 
fuels, ladder fuels and dead trees, and the thinning of 
live trees. 

3. A plan for maintaining the proposed fuel-reduction 
measures. 

B101.3 Fuel modification. To be considered a fuel modifica- 
tion for purposes of this code, continuous maintenance of the 
clearance is required. 



201 2 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 33 



34 2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 3 



APPENDIX C 
IrfC riA£.ArilJ ocvtnl I Y rUHIl 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 



When adopted, this appendix is to be used in place of Table 502. 1 to determine the fire hazard severity. 



A. Subdivision Design Points 
1 . Ingress/Egress 

Two or more primary roads 

One road 

One-way road in, one-way road out 



C. Topography 
8% or less 

1 More than 8%, but less than 20% 

3 20% or more, but less than 30% 

5 30% or more 



2. Width of Primary Road 

20 feet or more 1 

Less than 20 feet 3 

3. Accessibility 

Road grade 5% or less 1 

Road grade more than 5% 3 

4. Secondary Road Terminus 

Loop roads, cul-de-sacs with an outside 

turning radius of 45 feet or greater 1 

Cul-de-sac turnaround 

Dead-end roads 200 feet or less in length 3 

Dead-end roads greater than 200 feet in length 5 



5. 



Street Signs 
Present 
Not present 



D. Roofing Material 

Class A Fire Rated 1 _ 

Class B Fire Rated 5_ 

Class C Fire Rated 10_ 

Nonrated 20_ 

E. Fire Protection — Water Source 

500 GPM hydrant within 1 ,000 feet 1_ 

Hydrant farther than 1 ,000 feet or draft site 2_ 

Water source 20 min. or less, round trip 5_ 

Water source farther than 20 min., and 

45 min. or less, round trip 7_ 

Water source farther than 45 min., round trip 10_ 

F. Existing Building Construction Materials 
Noncombustible siding/deck 1_ 
Noncombustible siding/combustible deck 5_ 
Combustible siding and deck 10_ 



B. Vegetation (IWUIC Definitions) 

1 . Fuel Types 

Light 1_ 

Medium 5_ 

Heavy 10_ 

2. Defensible Space 

70% or more of site 1_ 

30% or more, but less than 70% of site 10_ 

Less than 30% of site 20_ 



G. Utilities (gas and/or electric) 
All underground utilities 
One underground, one aboveground 
All aboveground 

Total for Subdivision 
Moderate Hazard 
High Hazard 
Extreme Hazard 



40-59 
60-74 

75+ 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 2 



35 



36 2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 



APPENDIX D 

FIRE DANGER RATING SYSTEM 



This appendix is an excerpt from the National Fire Danger Rating (NFDR) System, 1978, 

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, general technical report INT-39, 

and is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption. 

The fuel models that follow are only general descriptions because they represent all wildfire 
fuels from Florida to Alaska and from the East Coast to California. 

FUEL MODEL KEY 



I. Mosses, lichens and low shrubs predominate ground fuels. 

A. An overstory of conifers occupies more than one-third 
of the site: MODEL Q 

B. There is no overstory, or it occupies less than one-third 
of the site (tundra): MODEL S 

II. Marsh grasses and/or reeds predominate: MODEL N 

III. Grasses and/or forbs predominate. 

A. There is an open overstory of conifer and/or hardwood 
trees: MODEL C 

B. There is no overstory. 

1 . Woody shrubs occupy more than one-third, but less 
than two-thirds of the site: MODEL T 

2. Woody shrubs occupy less than one-third of the 
site. 

a. The grasses and forbs are primarily annuals: 
MODEL A 

b. The grasses and forbs are primarily perennials: 
MODEL L 

IV. Brush, shrubs, tree reproduction or dwarf tree species 
predominate. 

A. Average height of woody plants is 6 feet or greater. 

1. Woody plants occupy two-thirds or more of the 
site. 

a. One-fourth or more of the woody foliage is dead. 

(1) Mixed California chaparral: MODEL B 

(2) Other types of brush: MODEL F 

b. Up to one-fourth of the woody foliage is dead: 
MODEL Q 

c. Little dead foliage: MODEL O 

2. Woody plants occupy less than two-thirds of the 
site: MODEL F 

B. Average height of woody plants is less than 6 feet. 

1. Woody plants occupy two-thirds or more of the 

site. 

a. Western United States: MODEL F 

b. Eastern United States: MODEL O 



2. Woody plants occupy less than two-thirds but more 
than one-third of the site. 

a. Western United States: MODEL T 

b. Eastern United States: MODEL D 

3. Woody plants occupy less than one-third of the site. 

a. The grasses and forbs are primarily annuals: 
MODEL A 

b. The grasses and forbs are primarily perennials: 
MODEL L 

V. Trees predominate. 

A. Deciduous broadleaf species predominate. 

1 . The area has been thinned or partially cut, leaving 
slash as the major fuel component: MODEL K 

2. The area has not been thinned or partially cut. 

a. The overstory is dormant; the leaves have fallen: 
MODEL E 

b. The overstory is in full leaf: MODEL R 

B. Conifer species predominate. 

1. Lichens, mosses, and low shrubs dominate as 
understory fuels: MODEL Q 

2. Grasses and forbs are the primary ground fuels: 
MODEL C 

3. Woody shrubs and/or reproduction dominate as 
understory fuels. 

a. The understory burns readily. 

(1) Western United States: MODEL T 

(2) Eastern United States: 

(a) The understory is more than 6 feet tall: 
MODEL O 

(b) The understory is less than 6 feet tall: 
MODEL D 

b. The understory seldom burns: MODEL H 

4. Duff and litter, branchwood, and tree boles are the 
primary ground fuels. 

a. The overstory is overmature and decadent; there 
is a heavy accumulation of dead tree debris: 
MODEL G 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE e 



37 



APPENDIX D 



b.The overstory is not decadent; there is only a 
nominal accumulation of debris. 

(1) The needles are 2 inches (51 mm) or more in 
length (most pines). 

(a) Eastern United States: MODEL P 

(b) Western United States: MODEL U 

(2) The needles are less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
long: MODEL H 

VI. Slash is the predominant fuel. 

A. The foliage is still attached; there has been little set- 
tling. 

1. The loading is 25 tons/acre (56.1 tons/ha) or 
greater: MODEL I 

2. The loading is less than 25 tons/acre (56.1 tons/ha) 
but more than 15 tons/acre (33.7 tons/ha): MODEL 
J 

3. The loading is less than 15 tons/acre (33.7 tons/ha): 
MODEL K 

B. Settling is evident; the foliage is falling off; grasses, 
forbs, and shrubs are invading the area. 

1. The loading is 25 tons/acre (56.1 tons/ha) or 
greater: MODEL J 

2. The loading is less than 25 tons/acre (56.1 tons/ha): 
MODEL K 

FUEL MODEL A 

This fuel model represents western grasslands vegetated 
by annual grasses and forbs. Brush or trees may be present 
but are very sparse, occupying less than a third of the area. 
Examples of types where Fuel Model A should be used are 
cheatgrass and medusahead. Open pinyon-juniper, sage- 
brush-grass, and desert shrub associations may appropri- 
ately be assigned this fuel model if the woody plants meet 
the density criteria. The quantity and continuity of the 
ground fuels vary greatly with rainfall from year to year. 

FUEL MODEL B 

Mature, dense fields of brush 6 feet (1 829 mm) or more in 
height are represented by this fuel model. One-fourth or 
more of the aerial fuel in such stands is dead. Foliage 
burns readily. Model B fuels are potentially very danger- 
ous, fostering intense, fast-spreading fires. This model is 
for California mixed chaparral generally 30 years or older. 
The F model is more appropriate for pure chamise stands. 
The B model may also be used for the New Jersey pine 
barrens. 

FUEL MODEL C 

Open pine stands typify Model C fuels. Perennial grasses 
and forbs are the primary ground fuel but there is enough 
needle litter and branchwood present to contribute signifi- 
cantly to the fuel loading. Some brush and shrubs may be 
present but they are of little consequence. Situations cov- 
ered by Fuel Model C are open, longleaf, slash, ponderosa, 
Jeffrey, and sugar pine stands. Some pinyon-juniper stands 
may qualify. 



FUEL MODEL D 

This fuel model is specifically for the palmetto-gallberry 
understory-pine overstory association of the southeast 
coastal plains. It can also be used for the so-called "low 
pocosins" where Fuel Model O might be too severe. This 
model should only be used in the Southeast, because of a 
high moisture of extinction. 

FUEL MODEL E 

Use this model after leaf fall for hardwood and mixed 
hardwood-conifer types where the hardwoods dominate. 
The fuel is primarily hardwood leaf litter. The oat-hickory 
types are best represented by Fuel Model E, but E is an 
acceptable choice for northern hardwoods and mixed for- 
ests of the Southeast. In high winds, the fire danger may 
be underrated because rolling and blowing leaves are not 
accounted for. In the summer after the trees have leafed 
out, Fuel Model E should be replaced by Fuel Model R. 

FUEL MODEL F 

Fuel Model F is the only one of the 1972 NFDR System 
Fuel Models whose application has changed. Model F now 
represents mature closed chamise stands and oakbrush 
fields of Arizona, Utah and Colorado. It also applies to 
young, closed stands and mature, open stands of California 
mixed chaparral. Open stands of pinyon-juniper are repre- 
sented; however, fire activity will be overrated at low 
wind speeds and where there is sparse ground fuels. 

FUEL MODEL G 

Fuel Model G is used for dense conifer stands where there 
is a heavy accumulation of litter and downed woody mate- 
rial. Such stands are typically overmature and may also be 
suffering insect, disease, wind or ice damage-natural 
events that create a very heavy buildup of dead material on 
the forest floor. The duff and litter are deep, and much of 
the woody material is more than 3 inches (76 mm) in 
diameter. The undergrowth is variable, but shrubs are usu- 
ally restricted to openings. Types meant to be represented 
by Fuel Model G are hemlock-Sitka spruce, Coast Doug- 
las-fir, and wind-thrown or bug-killed stands of lodgepole 
pine and spruce. 

FUEL MODEL H 

The short-needled conifers (white pines, spruces, larches 
and firs) are represented by Fuel Model H. In contrast to 
Model G fuels, Fuel Model H describes a healthy stand 
with sparse undergrowth and a thin layer of ground fuels. 
Fires in H fuels are typically slow spreading and are dan- 
gerous only in scattered areas where the downed woody 
material is concentrated. 

FUEL MODEL I 

Fuel Model I was designed for clearcut conifer slash 
where the total loading of materials less than 6 inches (1 52 
mm) in diameter exceeds 25 tons/acre (56.1 metric tons/ 
ha). After settling and the fines (needles and twigs) fall 
from the branches, Fuel Model I will overrate the fire 
potential. For lighter loadings of clearcut conifer slash, use 
Fuel Model J, and for light thinnings and partial cuts 



38 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 * 



APPENDIX D 



where the slash is scattered under a residual overstory, use 
Fuel Model K. 

FUEL MODEL J 

This model is complementary to Fuel Model I. It is for 
clearcuts and heavily thinned conifer stands where the 
total loading of materials less than 6 inches (152 mm) in 
diameter is less than 25 tons/acre (56.1 metric tons/ha). 
Again, as the slash ages, the fire potential will be over- 
rated. 

FUEL MODEL K 

Slash fuels from light thinnings and partial cuts in conifer 
stands are represented by Fuel Model K. Typically, the 
slash is scattered about under an open overstory. This 
model applies to hardwood slash and to southern pine 
clearcuts where the loading of all fuels is less than 15 tons/ 
acre (33.7 tons/ha). 

FUEL MODEL L 

This fuel model is meant to represent western grasslands 
vegetated by perennial grasses. The principal species are 
coarser and the loadings heavier than those in Model A 
fuels. Otherwise, the situations are very similar; shrubs 
and trees occupy less than one-third of the area. The quan- 
tity of fuel in these areas is more stable from year to year. 
In sagebrush areas, Fuel Model T may be more appropri- 
ate. 

FUEL MODEL N 

This fuel model was constructed specifically for the saw- 
grass prairies of south Florida. It may be useful in other 
marsh situations where the fuel is coarse and reedlike. 
This model assumes that one-third of the aerial portion of 
the plants is dead. Fast-spreading, intense fires can occur 
even over standing water. 

FUEL MODEL O 

The O fuel model applies to dense, brushlike fuels of the 
Southeast. O fuels, except for a deep litter layer, are 
almost entirely living, in contrast to B fuels. The foliage 
burns readily, except during the active growing season. 
The plants are typically over 6 feet (1 829 mm) tall and are 
often found under an open stand of pine. The high poco- 
sins of the Virginia, North and South Carolina coasts are 
the ideal of Fuel Model O. If the plants do not meet the 6- 
foot (1829 mm) criterion in those areas, Fuel Model D 
should be used. 

FUEL MODEL P 

Closed, thrifty stands of long-needled southern pines are 
characteristic of P fuels. A 2- to 4-inch (51 to 102 mm) 
layer of lightly compacted needle litter is the primary fuel. 
Some small-diameter branchwood is present, but the den- 
sity of the canopy precludes more than a scattering of 
shrubs and grass. Fuel Model P has the high moisture of 
extinction characteristic of the Southeast. The correspond- 
ing model for other long-needled pines is U. 



FUEL MODEL Q 

Upland Alaskan black spruce is represented by Fuel 
Model Q. The stands are dense but have frequent openings 
filled with usually flammable shrub species. The forest 
floor is a deep layer of moss and lichens, but there is some 
needle litter and small-diameter branchwood. The 
branches are persistent on the trees, and ground fires easily 
reach into the tree crowns. This fuel model may be useful 
for jack pine stands in the Lake States. Ground fires are 
typically slow spreading, but a dangerous crowning poten- 
tial exists. 

FUEL MODEL R 

This fuel model represents the hardwood areas after the 
canopies leaf out in the spring. It is provided as the off- 
season substitute for E. It should be used during the sum- 
mer in all hardwood and mixed conifer-hardwood stands 
where more than half of the overstory is deciduous. 

FUEL MODEL S 

Alaskan or alpine tundra on relatively well-drained sites is 
the S fuel. Grass and low shrubs are often present, but the 
principal fuel is a deep layer of lichens and moss. Fires in 
these fuels are not fast spreading or intense, but are diffi- 
cult to extinguish. 

FUEL MODEL T 

The bothersome sagebrush-grass types of the Great Basin 
and the Intermountain West are characteristic of T fuels. 
The shrubs burn easily and are not dense enough to shade 
out grass and other herbaceous plants. The shrubs must 
occupy at least one-third of the site or the A or L fuel mod- 
els should be used. Fuel Model T might be used for imma- 
ture scrub oak and desert shrub associations in the West, 
and the scrub oak-wire grass type in the Southeast. 

FUEL MODEL U 

Closed stands of western long-needled pines are covered 
by this model. The ground fuels are primarily litter and 
small branchwood. Grass and shrubs are precluded by the 
dense canopy but occur in the occasional natural opening. 
Fuel Model U should be used for ponderosa, Jeffrey, sugar 
pine, and red pine stands of the Lake States. Fuel Model P 
is the corresponding model for southern pine plantations. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 



39 



40 2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 3 



W~% I I fan i >S t*» I #\ fins 

FINDINGS OF FACT 

ITu's appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption. 



Originally, most fire and building codes were written and 
adopted at the local government level. As a result, there were 
many differences in code provisions from community to 
community. Local problems often resulted in unique code 
provisions that were appropriate to the local situation, but not 
of much use in other communities. 

With the development of uniform and model codes and 
their subsequent adoption by state governments, the common 
features were applied everywhere. Once the basic provisions 
were codified into a format and structure that had appeal to 
both code officials and the builder-development community, 
their code became "minimum standards." The model codes 
were just that — a document that set the minimum criteria that 
most communities could find acceptable, but not intended to 
solve every problem everywhere. The developers of model 
codes left one option to be used: those exceptional situations 
that require local modifications based on a specific problem 
could use a specific process to increase the level of a particu- 
lar requirement. 

The solution that was commonly made available in the 
model adoption process was the development of written 
"findings of fact" that justified modifications by local code 
officials. Many state codes identify a specific adoption pro- 
cess. This provision requires that a certain amount of research 
and analysis be conducted to support a written finding that is 
both credible and professional. In the context of adopting a 
supplemental document such as the wildland-urban interface 
provision, the writing of these findings is essential in creating 
the maps and overlap needed to use their specific options. 

The purpose of this appendix is to provide an overview of 
how local code officials could approach this process. There 
are three essential phenomena cited in some model adoption 
statutes that vary from community to community: climate, 
topography and geography. Although it can be agreed that 
there are other findings that could draw distinction in local 
effects, these three features are also consistent with standard 
code text that offers opportunity to be more restrictive than 
local codes. 

One point that needs to be reinforced is that the process 
demands a high level of professionalism to protect the code 
official's credibility in adopting more restrictive require- 
ments. A superficial effort in preparing the findings of fact 
could jeopardize the proposed or adopted code restriction. A 
code official should devote a sufficient amount of time to 
draft the findings of fact to ensure that the facts are accurate, 
comprehensive and verifiable. 

DEFINITIONS 

CLIMATE. The average course or condition of the weather 
at a particular place over a period of many years, as exhibited 
in absolute extremes, means and frequencies of given depar- 



tures from these means (i.e., of temperature, wind velocity, 
precipitation and other weather elements). 

GEOGRAPHY. "A science that deals with the earth and its 
life, especially the description of land, sea, air, and the distri- 
bution of plant and animal life including man and his indus- 
tries with reference to the mutual relations of these diverse 
elements." Webster's Third New International Dictionary of 
the English Language, Unabridged. 

INSURANCE SERVICES OFFICE (ISO). An agency that 
recommends fire insurance rates based on a grading schedule 
that incorporates evaluation of fire fighting resources and 
capabilities. 

TOPOGRAPHY. The configuration of landmass surface, 
including its relief (elevation) and the position of its natural 
and man-made features that affect the ability to cross or tran- 
sit a terrain. 

CLIMATIC CONSIDERATIONS 

There are two types of climates: macro and micro. A 
macro climate affects an entire region and gives the area a 
general environmental context. A micro climate is a specific 
variation that could be related to the other two factors, topog- 
raphy and geography. A micro climate may cover a relatively 
small area or be able to encompass an entire community, as 
opposed to another community in the same county. 

Climatic consideration should be given to the extremes, 
means and anomalies of the following weather elements: 

1. Temperatures. 

2. Relative humidities. 

3. Precipitation and flooding conditions. 

4. Wind speed and duration of periods of high velocity. 

5. Wind direction. 

6. Fog and other atmospheric conditions. 

What is essential in creating an wildland-urban overlay are 
the data that suggest the existence of critical fire weather in 
the jurisdiction. 

TOPOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS 

Topographic considerations should be given to the pres- 
ence of the following topographical elements: 

1 . Elevation and ranges of elevation. 

2. Location of ridges, drainages and escarpments. 

3. Percent of grade (slope). 

4. Location of roads, bridges and railroads. 

5. Other topographical features, such as aspect exposure. 
This information becomes an important part of creating an 

analysis of wildland-urban areas because topography and 
slope are key elements (along with fuel type) that create the 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 2 



41 



APPENDIX E 



need for specific ignition-resistance requirements in this 
code. 

GEOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS 

Geography should be evaluated to determine the relation- 
ship between man-made improvements (creating an expo- 
sure) and factors such as the following: 

1. Fuel types, concentration in a mosaic and distribution 
of fuel types. 

2. Earthquake fault zones. 

3. Hazardous material routes. 

4. Artificial boundaries created by jurisdictional boundar- 
ies. 

5. Vulnerability of infrastructure to damage by climate 
and topographical concerns. 

Fuel types are the final component of the findings that 
suggest the need for identifying wildland- urban areas in a 
jurisdiction. Review Appendix D for a brief description of the 
various fuel models that relate to the specific areas under 
evaluation. 

REPORTING THE FINDINGS 

After a person has researched a specific jurisdictional area, 
the facts should be incorporated into a written document that 
reflects how these facts relate to the code official's specific 
needs. The following is an exhibit that incorporates one such 
report. It should be reviewed as an example of how a relation- 
ship can be drawn between specific facts, fire-protection 
problems and specific code modifications. It should be noted 
that this is an example only. 

EXHIBIT 1 — Findings 

The [ADMINISTRATOR] does herewith make findings that 
certain climatic, topographic or geological features exist in 
the [jurisdiction] , and that those features can, under certain 
circumstances, affect emergency services. Further, certain 
code amendments are made to the [INTERNATIONAL FIRE 
CODE] and [INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE] that are aimed at 
mitigating, to the extent possible, the impact of those fea- 
tures. 

Finding 1 

That the [JURISDICTION ] is situated on the slopes of and at 
the base of the rNAME OF MTNSl . Mountains, with drainages 
from the [DIRECTION] portion of the district, including [IDEN- 
TIFY local creeks/streams/rivers] , which, when flooded, 
could result in conditions rendering fire department vehicular 
traffic access unduly burdensome or impossible. 

Further, the flood conditions described above carry the 
potential for overcoming the ability of the fire department to 
aid or assist in fire control, evacuations, rescues and the 
emergency task demands inherent in such situations. The 
potential for the aforementioned flooding conditions to result 
in limiting fire department emergency vehicular traffic, with 
resulting overtaxing fire department personnel, may further 
cause a substantial or total lack of protection against fire for 
the buildings and structures located within the jurisdiction. 

The aforementioned conditions support the imposition of 
fire-protection requirements greater than those set forth in the 



[INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE OR INTERNATIONAL FIRE 
CODE] , 

Finding 2 

That the [JURISDICTION] is situated near |NUMBER OF 
FAULTS] major faults, each capable of generating earthquakes 
of significant magnitude. These are the [NAME OF FAULTS] . 
These faults are subject to becoming active at any time; the 
[JURISDICTION] is particularly vulnerable to devastation 
should such an earthquake occur. 

The potential effects of earthquake activity include isolat- 
ing the [JURISDICTION] from the surrounding area and restrict- 
ing or eliminating internal circulation due to the potential for 
collapsing of highway overpasses and underpasses, along 
with other bridges in the district, or an earth slide, and the 
potential for vertical movement rendering surface travel 
unduly burdensome or impossible. 

Additional potential situations inherent in such an occur- 
rence include loss of the [jurisdiction! water sources; riDEN- 
tify LOCAL SOURCES! would be expected to suffer damage, 
along with the local reservoirs and water mains; broken natu- 
ral gas mains causing structure and other fires; leakage of 
hazardous materials; the need for rescues from collapsed 
structures; and the rendering of first aid and other medical 
attention to large numbers of people. 

The protection of human life and the preservation of prop- 
erty in the event of such an occurrence support the imposition 
of fire-protection requirements greater than those set forth in 
the [INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE OR INTERNATIONAL FIRE 
CODE] , 

Finding 3 

That the [jurisdiction] is [identify major transporta- 
tion ROUTES] , [IDENTIFY ROUTE] is designated by the [JURIS- 
DICTION] as an approved transportation route for highly toxic 
and radioactive materials. 

The potential for release or threatened release of a hazard- 
ous material along one of these routes is highly probable 
given the volume transported daily. Incidents of this nature 
will normally require all available emergency response per- 
sonnel to prevent injury and loss of life and to prevent, as far 
as practicable, property loss. Emergency personnel respond- 
ing to such aforementioned incidents may be unduly impeded 
and delayed in accomplishing an emergency response as a 
result of this situation, with the potential result of undue and 
unnecessary risk to the protection of life and public safety 
and, in particular, endangering residents and occupants in 
buildings or structures without the protection of automatic 
sprinklers. 

The aforementioned problems support the imposition of 
fire-protection requirements greater than those set forth in the 
[INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE OR INTERNATIONAL FIRE 
CODE] , 

Finding 4 

The seasonal climatic conditions during the late summer 
and fall create numerous serious difficulties regarding the 
control of and protection against fires in the [JURISDICTION]. 
The hot, dry weather typical of this area in summer and fall, 



42 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE' 



APPENDIX E 



coupled with [IDENTIFY ADDITIONAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS! 

frequently results in wildfires that threaten or could threaten 

the [JURISDICTION] . 

Although some code requirements, such as fire-resistive 
roof classification, have a direct bearing on building survival 
in a wildland fire situation, others, such as residential auto- 
matic sprinklers, may also have a positive effect. In dry cli- 
mate on low humidity days, many materials are much more 
easily ignited. More fires are likely to occur and any fire, 
once started, can expand extremely rapidly. Residential auto- 
matic sprinklers can arrest a fire starting within a structure 
before the fire is able to spread to adjacent brush and struc- 
tures. 

Seasonal winds also have the potential for interfering with 
emergency vehicle access, delaying or making impossible 
fire responses, because of toppling of extensive plantings of 
[TYPE OF TREES] trees. The trees are subject to uprooting in 
strong winds due to relatively small root bases compared to 
the tree itself. 

The aforementioned problems support the imposition of 
fire-protection requirements greater than those set forth in the 

[INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE OR INTERNATIONAL FIRE 
CODE | . 

Finding 5 

The [JURISDICTION! is a [DESCRIBE TYPE OF REGION1 and 
experiences water shortages from time to time. Those short- 
ages can have a severely adverse effect on water availability 
for firefighting. 

Fires starting in sprinklered buildings are typically con- 
trolled by one or two sprinkler heads, flowing as little as 13 
gallons per minute (0.82 L/s) each. 

Hose streams used by engine companies on well-estab- 
lished structure fires operate at about 250 gallons per minute 
(15.8 L/s) each, and the estimated water need for a typical 
residential fire is 1,250 to 1,500 gallons per minute (78.9 to 
94.6 L/s), according to the Insurance Services Office. 

Under circumstances such as earthquakes, when multiple 
fires start within the community, the limited water demands 
of residential automatic sprinklers would control and extin- 
guish many fires before they spread from building to build- 
ing. In such a disaster, water demands needed for 
conflagration firefighting probably would not be available. 

The aforementioned problems support the imposition of 
fire-protection requirements greater than those set forth in the 
[INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE OR INTERNATIONAL FIRE 
CODE] , 

Finding 6 

The topography of the [JURISDICTION] presents problems 
in delivery of emergency services, including fire protection. 
Hilly terrain has narrow, winding roads with little circulation, 
preventing rapid access and orderly evacuation. Much of 
these hills are covered with highly nonfire-resistive natural 
vegetation. In addition to access and evacuation problems, 
the terrain makes delivery of water extremely difficult. Some 
hill areas are served by water pump systems subject to failure 



in fire, high winds, earthquake and other power failure situa- 
tions. 

The aforementioned problems support the imposition of 
fire protection requirements greater than those set forth in the 
[INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE OR INTERNATIONAL FIRE 
CODE] . 

SUMMARY 

Efforts to produce comprehensive findings of fact cannot 
be underestimated. It is an essential step for fire-protection 
professionals to take before risking the proposal to modify a 
model code with a requirement that is unique to that commu- 
nity. Done properly, a findings-of-fact document will not 
only support the adoption of a local modification, it may 
make it virtually impossible to ignore the need without creat- 
ing a community consequence. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 3 



43 



44 2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



APPENDIX F 

CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRE-RESISTIVE VEGETATION 

This appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption. 

All plants will burn under extreme fire weather conditions 
such as drought. However, plants burn at different intensities 
and rates of consumption. Fire-resistive plants burn at a rela- 
tively low intensity, slow rates of spread and with short flame 
lengths. The following are characteristics of fire-resistive 
vegetation: 

1 . Growth with little or no accumulation of dead vegeta- 
tion (either on the ground or standing upright). 

2. Nonresinous plants (willow, poplar or tulip trees). 

3. Low volume of total vegetation (for example, a grass 
area as opposed to a forest or shrub-covered land). 

4. Plants with high live fuel moisture (plants that contain a 
large amount of water in comparison to their dry 
weight). 

5. Drought-tolerant plants (deeply rooted plants with 
thick, heavy leaves). 

6. Stands without ladder fuels (plants without small, fine 
branches and limbs between the ground and the canopy 
of overtopping shrubs and trees). 

7. Plants requiring little maintenance (slow-growing 
plants that, when maintained, require little care). 

8. Plants with woody stems and branches that require pro- 
longed heating to ignite. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 1 45 



46 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



APPENDIX G 
SELF-DEFENSE MECHANISM 

This appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption. 



IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 

The International Wildland- Urban Interface Code estab- 
lishes a set of minimum standards to reduce the loss of prop- 
erty from wildfire. The purpose of these standards is to 
prevent wildfire spreading from vegetation to a building. Fre- 
quently, proposals are made by property or landowners of 
buildings located in the wildland-urban interface to consider 
other options and alternatives instead of meeting these mini- 
mum standards. This appendix chapter provides discussion of 
some elements of the proposed self-defense mechanisms and 
their role in enhancing the protection of exposed structures. 

STRUCTURAL SURVIVABILITY 

Various stages of assault occur as a building is exposed to a 
wildland-urban fire. Ashes are cast in front of a fire out of a 
smoke or convection column, which can result in secondary 
ignitions. Heavier embers that have more body weight and 
may contain more heat to serve as sources of ignition follow. 
Finally, the actual intrusion of a flame front and the radiant 
heat flux can expose combustibles outside of a building and 
the exterior structure of a building to various levels of radiant 
heat. A study revealed that the actual exposure of a building 
to the flame front by the perimeter of the fire was usually less 
than six minutes. However, the exposure to the forms of other 
materials that can result in proliferation of other ignitions can 
vary, depending on wind, topography and fuel conditions. 

To enhance structural survivability, the self-defense mech- 
anisms must, first, do everything possible to prevent the igni- 
tion of materials from objects that are cast in front of the fire 
and, second, they must withstand the assault of the fire on the 
structure to prevent flames from penetrating into the building 
and resulting in an interior fire. There are considerable prob- 
lems in achieving both of these objectives using some of the 
proposed alternative forms of protection such as the lack of 
definitive standards for self-defense mechanisms on the exte- 
rior of buildings. Although fire service has done considerable 
research into the evaluation of technology, such as smoke 
detectors, fire alarms, and interior sprinkler systems, very 
limited amount of study has been done on exterior sprinkler 
systems. 

All forms of fire protection are classified as either active 
or passive. Active fire protection is taking specific action to 
control the fire in some manner. Passive fire protection uses 
resistance to ignition or provides some form of warning that 
allows other action to be taken. These two classifications of 
self-defense mechanisms create different problems with 
regard to being accepted as alternatives for building construc- 
tion. Furthermore, certain self-defense mechanisms must be 
built in during new construction, and others may only be 
capable of being added as a retrofit to existing structures. As 
a matter of public policy, most code officials are reluctant to 
accept passive fire protection as an equivalent to a construc- 



tion requirement, but are also reluctant to accept active fire 
protection systems that require intervention by suppression 
personnel. 

The unequal distribution of self-defense mechanisms 
within a specific neighborhood poses another problem. If an 
individual is granted a waiver or exemption on the basis of 
putting in a nonmandated self-defense mechanism, and the 
neighbors to either side choose not to do so, or are not given 
the same options, there is a potential operational problem. 

ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS 

This appendix chapter provides consideration of the follow- 
ing alternatives: (1) exterior sprinkler systems, (2) alternative 
water supply systems for exposure protection, (3) Class A 
foam systems, (4) enhanced exterior fire protection, (5) shel- 
tering in place, and (6) building location. 

Exterior sprinkler systems. Currently, there is no nationally 
accepted standard for the design and installation of exterior 
fire sprinkler systems. Interior sprinkler systems are regulated 
by nationally recognized standards that have specific require- 
ments. However, exterior sprinkler systems lack such unifor- 
mity. What is generally proposed is a type of sprinkler 
system, placed on the roofs or eaves of a building, whose pri- 
mary purpose is to wet down the roof. These types of systems 
can be activated either manually or automatically. However, 
the contemporary thought on exterior sprinkler systems is 
that if the roof classification is of sufficient fire resistance, 
exterior sprinklers are of little or no value. 

Another option and alternative with exterior sprinklers is 
to use them to improve the relative humidity and fuel mois- 
ture in the defensible space. In this case, the exterior sprinkler 
is not used to protect the structure as much as it attempts to 
alter the fuel situation. However, studies do not support the 
idea that merely spraying water into the air in the immediate 
vicinity of a rapidly advancing wildland-urban fire does 
much good. Clearly, irrigation systems that keep plants 
healthy and fire-resistive plants that resist convection and 
radiated heat can accomplish the same purpose. 

Alternative water supply systems for exposure protection. 
Pools and spas are often offered as an alternative water 
source for fire departments. These water sources must be 
accessible and reliable to be of any use by fire protection 
forces. Accessibility means that the fire department must be 
able to withdraw the water without having to go through 
extraordinary measures such as knocking down fences or 
having to set up drafting situations. Designs have been cre- 
ated to put liquid- or gas-fueled pumps or gravity valves on 
pools and spas to allow fire departments to access these water 
systems. A key vulnerability to the use of these alternative 
water systems is loss of electrical power. When the reliability 
of a water system depends on external power sources, it can- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 



47 



APPENDIX G 



not be relied upon by firefighters to be available in a worst- 
case scenario. 

Class A foam systems. A new and emerging technology is 
the concept of Class A foam devices. These are devices that 
allow a homeowner to literally coat the exterior of their house 
with a thick layer of foam that prevents the penetration of 
embers and radiant heat to the structure. There is no nation- 
ally recognized standard for Class A foam technology; how- 
ever, experiments in various wildland fire agencies seem to 
advocate foaming houses in advance of fire and flame fronts. 
To be accepted by the code official, the Class A foam system 
should pass rigorous scrutiny with regard to the manner and 
needs in which it is activated, the ways and means in which it 
is properly maintained, and a ways and means to test the sys- 
tem for its operational readiness during hiatus between emer- 
gencies. 

Enhanced exterior fire protection. This alternative method 
would increase the degree of fire resistance on the exterior of 
a building. This is most often an alternative recommended as 
a retroactive application when individual properties cannot 
achieve adequate defensible space on the exterior of a build- 
ing. Normally, fire resistance and building scenarios are con- 
cerned with containing a fire. Fire-resistance ratings within 
building design infers resistance to a fire for the specified 
time to compartmentalize the building's interior. 

To improve fire resistance on the exterior of the structure, 
the primary emphasis is on preventing intrusion into the 
building. This means protection of apertures and openings 
that may or may not be required to have any degree of fire 
resistance by accepted building codes. The option that is 
available here is for individuals to provide coverage in the 
form of shutters or closures to these areas, which, along with 
maintenance of perimeter-free combustibles, can often pre- 
vent intrusion. 

There are obvious limitations to this alternative. First and 
foremost is the means of adequately evaluating the proposed 
fire resistance of any given assembly. Testing techniques to 
determine fire resistance for such objects as drywall and other 
forms of construction may not be applicable to exterior appli- 
cation. Nonetheless, code officials should determine the util- 
ity of a specific fire resistance proposal by extrapolating 
conservatively. 

Shelter in place. Developments in the wildland-urban inter- 
face may be designed to allow occupants to "Shelter in 
Place." Use of this design alternative should include ignition- 
resistant construction, access, water supply, automatic sprin- 
kler systems, provisions for and maintenance of defensible 
space, and a Fire Protection Plan. 

A Fire Protection Plan describes ways to minimize the fire 
problems created by a specific project or development. The 
purpose for the Fire Protection Plan is to reduce the burden 
and impact of the project or development on the community's 
fire protection delivery system. The plan may utilize compo- 
nents of land use, building construction, vegetation manage- 
ment and other design techniques and technologies. It should 
include specific mitigation measures consistent with the 
unique problems resulting from the location, topography, 
geology, flammable vegetation and climate of the proposed 



site. The plan shall be consistent with this code, and approved 
by the fire code official. The cost of preparation and review 
are to be borne by the project or development proponent. 

Building location. The location of a new building within lot 
lines should be considered as it relates to topography and fire 
behavior. Buildings located in natural chimneys, such as nar- 
row canyons and saddles, are especially fire prone because 
winds are funneled into these areas and eddies are created. 
Buildings located on narrow ridges without setbacks may be 
subjected to increased flame and convective heat exposure 
from a fire advancing from below. Stone or masonry walls 
can act as heat shields and deflect the flames. Swimming 
pools and rated or noncombustible decks and patios can be 
used to create a setback, decreasing the exposure to the struc- 
ture. Attic and under floor vents, picture windows and sliding 
glass doors should not face possible corridors due to the 
increased risk of flame or ember penetration. 

CONCLUSION 

The purpose of the International Wildland-Urban Interface 
Code is to establish minimum standards that prevent the loss 
of structures, even if fire department intervention is absent. 
To accept alternative self-defense mechanisms, the code offi- 
cial must carefully examine whether these devices will be in 
place at the time of an event and whether or not they will 
assist or actually complicate the defense of the structure by 
fire suppression forces if they are available. 

The best alternative to having a building comply with all 
of the provisions of this code is to remove sources of fuel. 
This is closely paralleled by excellent housekeeping between 
the vegetation and the structure. Alternative ways of achiev- 
ing each of these goals can and should be considered after 
scrutiny by appropriately credentialed and qualified fire pro- 
tection personnel. 



48 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE 4 



APPENDIX H 

'IONAL WILOLAND^URBAN INTERFACE 



This appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption. 




Reevaluate in 
3 Years or as 

Required 
302.3 



WUI 
Problem 
Mitigated 



Appendix 
I -A 



® 



Existing 
Structure 



Require 

Defensible 

Space 

603 



Access Required 
402.1.1 
402.2.1 

403 




Yes 



New 
Individual 
Structure 

402.2 



® 




Ji, 



Determine 

Fire Hazard 

Severity 

Table 502 




© 



Water Supply 

Required 

402.1.2 

404 




(see page 50) (see page 51 ) (see page 52) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 



49 



APPENDIX H 



■#- 



IR2 



IR3 




M 



Moderate 
Hazard 



Subdivision or 
Individual 
Structure 



Conforming/" 
Defensible 

Space 

.603, 



Yes 



1.5x 
Conforming 
Defensible 
Space 



Yes 



NoIR 
Construction 



Conforming x. No 
Water Supply >-— ► 
404 



Yes 







Individual 
Structure 



Yes 



Yes 



IR3 



Yes 



Not Allowed 

Per Table 503.1, 

Footnote 2 





© 



IR1 



IR2 



50 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 



APPENDIX H 



(h) 



High 
Hazard 




Yes 



Not Allowed 

Per Table 503.1, 

Footnote 2 



Yes 



Subdivision or 
Individual 
Structure 



Individual 
Structure 




© 



Yes 



Conforming 
Defensible 
Space 

.603, 



Yes 



IR1 
N.C. 





IR1 



Yes 



IR3 



Yes 



IR2 



fa > -ffl — 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE e 



51 



APPENDIX H 




Extreme 
Hazard 




Subdivision or 
Individual 
Structure 



IR1 



Yes 



1.5x 
Conforming 
Defensible 
Space 



Yes 



IR2 




Individual 
Structure 



Yes 



1.5x 
Conforming 
Defensible 
Space 



Yes 



IR1 



Yes 



Not Allowed 

Per Table 503.1, 

Footnote 2 




N.P. 



IR1 
N.C. 



52 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE* 



§ Si! L#!C^ 



A 
ACCESS 

Applicability 402 

Driveways 403.2 

Fire apparatus access roads 403.3 

Grade 403.7 

Individual structures 402.2 

Marking of roads 402.3, 403.4 

Restricted 403.1 

Subdivisions 402.1 

ACCESSORY STRUCTURE 

Defined 202 

Detached 504.1 1 , 505.1 1 

Exempt from permit 107.3 

ADDITIONS OR ALTERATIONS 101.5 

ADDRESS MARKERS 402.3, 403.6 

ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS 105.3 

APPEALS 106 

APPENDICES 101 .2.1 

APPLICABILITY 102 

AUTHORITY OF CODE OFFICIAL 104 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 602 

c 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION 110 

Certificate of occupancy 1 10.2 

Revocation 1 1 0.4 

Temporary occupancy 1 10.3 

CLASS 1 IGNITION-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION 504 

Appendages 504.7 

Detached accessory structures 504.1 1 

Eaves 504.3 

Exterior doors 504.9 

Exterior walls 504.5 

Gutters and downspouts 504.4 

Protection of eaves 504.3 

Roof covering 504.2 

Underfloor protection 504.6 

Vents 504.10 

Windows 504.8 

CLASS 2 IGNITION-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION 505 

Appendages 505.7 

Detached accessory structures 505.1 1 

Exterior doors 505.9 



Exterior walls 505.5 

Gutters and downspouts 505.4 

Protection of eaves 505.3 

Roof covering 505.2 

Underfloor protection 505.6 

Vents 505.10 

Windows 505.8 

CLASS 3 IGNITION-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION 506 

Gutters and downspouts 506.4 

Roof covering 506.2 

Unenclosed underfloor protection 506.3 

Vents 506.4 

CODE OFFICIAL, AUTHORITY 104 

COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES 105 

CONTROL OF 
STORAGE Appendix A, Section A105 



DEFENSIBLE SPACE 603 

Fuel modification 603.2 

Maintenance of 604 

DEFINITIONS 202 

DESIGNATION OF WILDLAND-URBAN 

INTERFACE AREA 302.1 

DUMPING Appendix A, Section A106 



FEES 112 

FINDINGS OF FACT Appendix E 

FIRE DANGER RATING SYSTEM Appendix D 

FIRE FLOW CALCULATION AREA 

Defined 202 

Application 404.5 

FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY 502 

FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY FORM Appendix C 

FIRE PROTECTION PLAN 405 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 
CONSTRUCTION 501 .3 

FSRE-RESISTIVE VEGETATION Appendix F 

FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED 
LUMBER OR WOOD 503.2, 504.5, 504.7, 

504.11,505.5,505.7, 505.11 

FUEL MODELS Appendix D 

FUEL MODIFICATION DISTANCE 603.2 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE' 



53 



INDEX 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. 



Appendix A 



1 



IGNITION-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL 503 

IGNITION SOURCE 
CONTROL Appendix A, Section A104 

INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT 109 

Abatement 109.4.8 

Authority to inspect 109.1 .2 

Citations 109.4.4 

Enforcement 109.2 

Placarding 109.4.5.3 

Prosecution 109.4.6 

Reinspections 109.1.3 

Right of entry 109.3 

Testing 109.1.4 

Unsafe conditions 109.4.5 



K 



KEY BOX 



403.1 



Validity 107.7 

Work exempt from permit 107.3 

PLACARDING AS UNSAFE 109.4.5.3 

PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 108 

Amended 108.10 

Examination of 108.9 

Information on plans and specifications 108.2 

Phased 108.12 

Previous approval 108.1 1 

Retention of 108.8 

Site plan 108.3 

Vegetation management plans 108.4 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE 
CODE OFFICIAL 102.1 

PRACTICAL DIFFICULTIES 103.1 

PROTECTION OF PUMPS AND 
WATER STORAGE 
FACILITIES Appendix A, Section A107 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 102.4, Chapter 7 

RETROACTIVITY 101 .4 

ROOF COVERINGS, REPLACEMENT OR 
REPAIR OF 507 



LAND USE 

LIMITATIONS Appendix A, Section A108 

LIABILITY OF THE CODE OFFICIAL 104.3 

LP-GAS INSTALLATIONS 606 

M 

MAINTENANCE 101 .6 

MAINTENANCE OF DEFENSIBLE SPACE 604 

Modified area 604.2 

Responsibility 604.3 

Trees 604.4 

MAPPING OF WILDLAND-URBAN 
INTERFACE AREA 302.2 



SCOPE 101 

SELF-DEFENSE MECHANISM Appendix G 

SERVICE UTILITIES 113 

SPARK ARRESTERS 605 

STOP WORK ORDER 114 

STORAGE OF FIREWOOD AND 
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 607 



TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE 103.2 

TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 111 

TREES 604.4 



PERMITS 

Application 1 07.4 

Approval 1 07.5 

Expiration 107.8 

Issuance 107.6 

Preliminary inspection 107.4.1 

Refusal to issue 107.6.1 

Required 107.2 

Retention 107.9 

Revocation 107.10 



VEGETATION CONTROL. . Appendix A, Section A102 
VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PLAN Appendix B 

w 

WATER SUPPLY 

Adequate water supply 404.5 

Applicability 402 

Draft sites 404.3 

Hydrants 404.4 

Identification 404.8 



54 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 



INDEX 



Individual structures 402.2.2 

Obstructions 404.7 

Reliability 404.10 

Subdivisions 402.1 

Testing and maintenance 404.9 

Water sources 404.2 

WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE 

AREA DESIGNATIONS 302 

Declaration 302.1 

Mapping 302.2 

Review 302.3 



2012 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE® 55 



56 201 2 INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE CODE -